John 1
1. In the beginning [of creation] there was the Milta*; and that Milta* was with Allaha; and Allaha was [the embodiment of] that Milta.* 2. This was in the beginning with Allaha. 3. Everything was within his power*, [otherwise] nothing would ever exist.* 4. Through him [there] was Life* and Life became the spark* of humanity 5. And that [ensuing] fire* lights the darkness and darkness does not overshadow it.

6. There was a man sent by Allaha, his name [was] John [the Baptist.] 7. He came for that testimony, to testify [concerning] the light, so that every human [being] may [come] to believe by his [testimony*.] 8. He was not the light, except that he was to testify [concerning] it*.

9. There was the light of the truth, that which lights everyone who is born*.

10. He was with the people* and the people [came into being] by his hand* and the people did not know Him. 11. He came to his own and his own did not receive him.

12. But all those who did receive him, He assigned them to be children* of Allaha, [to them] who believed in his name; 13. They who [did not become so] through blood, nor through the desire* of the flesh and neither through a man’s willpower*; except they became born [so] from Allaha.

14. And the Manifestation became flesh and made his dwelling amongst us, and we saw His glory, glory as [that] uniquely [of the nature] of the Creator, Full of grace and blessing.

15. John [the Baptist ] testified to him and cried out, saying, “This is the one [of whom] they said, ‘The one who comes after me And yet is ahead of me, because he arrived first.’“

16. And because of his abundant [grace] we have all been fulfilled, Blessing upon blessing.* 17. The Law came to us by the hand of Moses. [But] the truth and grace was through Eashoa the Messiah. 18. No human [being] ever saw Allaha, except for the only born Allaha, He who existed in the bosom of his Father, [Who] proclaimed* Him.

19. And this is the testimony of John [the Baptist,] as Jews of Jerusalem sent high priests and Levites, to ask him, “Who are you?” 20. And he informed them, and did not deny it, saying*, “I am not the Anointed One*.” 21. And they asked him, “Then what, are you Elijah?” And he said, “I am not.” Are you a prophet?” And he answered, “No.” 22. And they said to him, “Who are you? So we can give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?” 23. He said, “‘I am the voice that cries in the wilderness, lay out the path [for] Maryah’ as Isaiah the prophet proclaimed.”

24. And the ones who were sent were from the Pharisees. 25. And they asked him, saying (to him,) “Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Anointed One, nor Elijah, nor a prophet?” 26. [Then] John answered them, saying, “I am baptizing with water*, but amongst you stands one whom you do not know, 27. “He who comes after me, whose shoe laces I am not worthy of untying.” 28. These [events] occurred in Bethany, by the other side of [the] Jordan [river,] where John was baptizing. 29. And the following day John saw Eashoa approaching him, and he said, “Behold the Lamb of Allaha, who takes away the sin of the universe. 30. “This is the one of whom I said, ‘After me comes a man* who [goes] before me, for he was [always] ahead of me.’ 31. “And I would not know him, except that he was to be known to Israel, [and] because of this came I baptizing with water*.” 32. And [thus] testified John and said, “You shall see the Holy Spirit like a dove nestling upon him. 33. “And I would not have known him, except for the [one who] sent me to baptize with the waters, the one who told me, ‘Whoever you see upon whom the nestling Spirit holding firmly, he shall baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ 34. “And I saw and am testifying that he is the Son of Allaha.”

35. And on the second day [there] stood John with two of his disciples. 36. And he gazed upon Eashoa as he walked, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of Allaha!” 37. And both his disciples heard it* and they followed Eashoa. 38. And Eashoa turned and saw them coming after him, and he said to them, “What do you want?” They said to him, “[Our] Master*, where do you reside*?” 39. He said to them, “Come on and see [for yourselves.]” And they went and saw where he was, and they remained with him that day–and it was the tenth hour. 40. But one of the two who had heard it from John and had followed him, was Andrew, the brother of Simon. 41. He first found his brother Simon, and he said to him, “We have found the Anointed One!” 42. And he brought them to Eashoa. Eashoa gazed at [Simon] and said, “You are Simon, the son of the dove*, you shall be called Keepa*.”

43. On the following day, it pleased Eashoa to go to Galilee, and he found Philip, and he said to him, “Follow me.” 44. But Philip was from Bethsaida, from the town of Andrew and Simon. 45. Philip found Nathaniel and said to him, “The one of whom wrote Moses in the Law and the prophets, we have found him, [he is] Eashoa, the son of Joseph, from Nazareth;” 46. [But] Nathaniel said to him, “From Nazareth, is it possible anything good can [come out] of there?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” 47. Eashoa saw Nathaniel approaching him, and he said to him, “Behold a true son of Israel, in whom there is no duplicity!” 48. And Nathaniel said to him, “From when did you know me?” Eashoa answered him, saying, “I knew you before Philip called you, as I saw you [sitting] under the fig tree.” 49. [And] Nathaniel replied, saying, “Master, you are the Son of Allaha! You are the King of Israel!” 50. Eashoa replied and said to him, “Because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You shall see a great [deal] more than these!” 51. He said to them, “Amen, amen, I say to you, from now on you shall see the heaven [that I have] opened and the angels of Allaha as they ascend and descend to the Son of Man.*”

Footnotes: 1:1 [all instances] Literal Aramaic word retained: “Manifestation.” “Milta” or “Miltha” is an Aramaic word that has been set aside for only sacred use. Only the Messiah Eashoa is ever to be called the Milta. Grammatically, “Milta” means the essential connotation for a person or thing. There is no true English language equivalent for this word. — 1:3 Literal Aramaic [Aramaic]: “[In his] hand.” — 1:4. 1 “And without his hand, not one [thing that] became would have become.” — 1:4. 2 “Lives,” whenever it represents: “life everlasting” is stated in the plural. When used in this sense it will always be capitalized in this translation and appear as “Life.” — 1:4. 3 “Light.” — 1:5 “Light.” — 1:7 “Hand.” — 1:8 “The light.” — 1:9. 1 “Gives Life to.” — 1:9. 2 “Comes to [people, or] the universe.” — 1:10. 1 “The universe.” — 1:10. 2 Aramaic expression: He created them. — 1:12 “Sons of Allaha.” — 1:13. 1 “Will.” — 1:13. 2 Literal expression: “Through satisfaction of man [or power of maturity.]” — 1:16 Literal expression: “And from his fullness we have all been satisfied, grace in place of grace.” — 1:18 “Spoke of.” — 1:20. 1 “Informing.” — 1:20. 2 The Messiah. — 1:26 “Waters.” — 1:30 “Mighty [man.]” — 1:31 “Waters.” — 1:37 “As they heard.” — 1:38. 1 “Rabban.” — 1:38. 2 Literal expression: “Where dwell you?” — 1:42. 1 Literal The Holy Spirit. — 1:42. 2 Aramaic name retained: “Rock,” which is Anglicized as “Peter.” — 1:51 “Bar-nasha,” is a theological concept when used in this construction. Sometimes it means: “humanity,” other times: “a human being.”


OF the six things which existed before creation, when only ‘the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters,’ two, the Torah and the throne of God, were complete in every detail. The remaining four, however, viz., the Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of Messiah, existed prior to the creation only in an incomplete form.–Gen. Rabba 1.

From the time of creation constant reference is made in Holy Writ to Messiah and the Messianic hope of Israel. ‘The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters’; the Spirit of God means Messiah.–Gen. Rabba 2; also Levit. Rabba 14.

When Eve at the birth of Seth exclaimed, ‘God hath appointed me another seed.’ her underlying thought was the King Messiah.–Gen. Rabba 23.

He who knows how long the Israelites worshipped idols can learn therefrom when the Son of David–Messiah–will come. Three different prophets tell us this: (1) ‘Like as you have forsaken Me, and served strange gods in your land, so shall ye serve strangers in a land that is not yours’ (Jer. 5. 19); (2) ‘And I will visit her the days of Baalim,’ etc., (Hos. 2. 13); (3) ‘Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone lest they should hear the law, and the words which the Lord hath sent in his spirit by the prophets. Therefore it is come to pass that as he cried and they would not hear, so they cried and I would not hear, saith the Lord’ (Zech. 7. 12, 13).–Lament. Rabba 1.

The great mountain spoken of by the prophet

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Zechariah (4. 7) is no other than Messiah, Son of David, and he is called ‘the Great Mountain,’ because he towers above the Patriarchs, is greater than Moses, and is above the ministering angels. As Isaiah says (52. 10), ‘Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled and be very high.’–Midr. Tanchuma Toldos.

The word הדרך (Hadrach), used by the prophet Zechariah (9. 1), is one of the titles of Messiah. It is connected with the word דרך (leading), and is therefore applied to him who will lead man to repentance.–Midr. Song of Songs 7.

The ‘four carpenters’ to whom the prophet also refers, are Elijah, Melchizedek, the Messiah of war, called by some Messiah son of Joseph, and the true Messiah. These Messiahs are referred to in the 32nd chapter of Isaiah, and their existence is constantly mentioned. Seven or eight Messiahs are sometimes said to be promised in the words of the Prophet Micah (5. 5), ‘Then shall we raise against him seven shepherds and eight principal men,’ but it is held that there will be but four (Zech. 1. 20), and these are they: Elijah the Tishbite, an unnamed man of the tribe of Manasseh, Messiah of war–an Ephraimite, and Messiah the Great, the descendant of David.–Midr. Song of Songs 2.

Two of King David’s descendants were destined for universal dominion: King Solomon and King Messiah, to whom David refers in his seventy-second Psalm.–Numb. Rabba U

The whole of the 27th chapter of Isaiah refers to the Messiah.–Exod. Rabba 1.

Solomon’s Song has also reference to Messiah. ‘The voice of the turtle is heard in our land’ means the voice of Messiah.–Midr. Song of Songs 2.

When King Solomon speaks of his ‘beloved,’ he usually means Israel the nation. In one instance he compares his beloved to a roe, and therein he refers

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to a feature which marks alike Moses and the Messiah, the two redeemers of Israel. just as a roe comes within the range of man’s vision only to disappear from sight and then appear again, so it is with these redeemers. Moses appeared to the Israelites, then disappeared, and eventually appeared once more, and the same peculiarity we have in connexion with Messiah; He will appear, disappear, and appear again.–Numb. Rabba 11.

The fourteenth verse in the second chapter of Ruth is thus explained. ‘Come thou hither’ is the prediction of Messiah’s kingdom. ‘Dip the morsel in the vinegar,’ foretells the agony through which Messiah will pass, as it is written in Isaiah (cap. 51), ‘He was wounded for our sins, He was bruised for our transgressions.’ ‘And she set herself beside the reapers’ predicts the temporary departure of Messiah’s kingdom. ‘And he reached her a parched corn’ means the restoration of His kingdom.–Midr. Ruth 5.

To three individuals God said, ‘Ask, and it shall be given to thee.’ These are Solomon, Ahaz, and Messiah, to the last of whom it was promised, ‘Ask of Me, and I shall give Thee the heathens for Thine inheritance.’–Gen. Rabba 44.

In a similar strain we read, Israel is to overcome ten of the heathen nations of the world; seven of them have already been conquered; the remaining three will fall at the advent of Messiah.–Gen. Rabba 44. But, despite all this, Messiah will not come till all those who are to be created have made their appearance in the world.–Gen. Rabba 24.

In tracing the descent and history of the Israelites, the Bible enumerates the generations of the heads of the families of the earth whose history touched that of the chosen people. ‘These are the generations of the heavens and the earth’ is the first instance of the use of the word תולדות in such a connexion. If regard

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be had to the Hebrew text of the verse, it will be found that here the word referred to is written in full, i.e. spelt תולדות, with the additional ו, whilst in all other places where the word occurs the word is always spelt with one ו, thus, תלדות. This, it will be found, is the invariable usage until we come to, ‘Now these are the generations of Perez’ (Ruth 4. 18). Here we once again find the word תולדות spelt in full. These are the only two instances in the whole of the Bible. The first refers to the time before the sin and fall of Adam, which brought death into the world, and, inconsequence, all succeeding תלדות, ‘generations,’ were deprived of some of the possibilities of life, and this is indicated by the omission of the ו. But the enumeration of the descendants of Perez, bringing appreciably nearer the promised abolition of death through the agency of his descendant, the Messiah, is hailed as the occasion to celebrate the restoration to perfect man of what he had lost through the imperfection of the first of his kind, and hence the word תולדות is here spelt in full.–Exod. Rabba 30.

A similar deduction is made with reference to the spelling of the word עתודים ‘he-goats.’ Each of the princes of Israel brought as a sacrifice at the dedication of the tabernacle five he-goats. This word is spelt without the ו, thus, עתדים in all the numerous repetitions of the details of the offerings, which are identically the same in all instances. There is but one exception, and that is (Numb. 7. 17) in the account of the offerings brought by Nachshon, son of Aminadab, because from him were to spring six (the numerical value of ו) of the great men of Israel, who were each to be distinguished by six special attributes. The Messiah and his ancestor David are among the six, and Isaiah thus enumerates the six distinguishing traits in the character of the descendant of Jesse, whose coming he foretells. ‘And there shall rest upon him (1) the

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Spirit of the Lord, (2) the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, (3) the Spirit of counsel, (4) and might, (5) the Spirit of knowledge, and (6) the Spirit of the Lord.’–Numb. Rabba 13.

Abraham, Job, Hezekiah, and Messiah found God out for themselves without being previously instructed.–Numb. Rabba 14.

The great gifts of God, of which Adam was deprived by reason of his sin and fall–light being one of them–will all be restored through Messiah, who will appear from the North and rebuild the Temple in the South.–Numb. Rabba 13.

The prophecy of Isaiah concerning Jerusalem, ‘Behold, thy sons shall come from afar and thy daughters shall be nursed by thy side,’ could not be hailed with the same satisfaction as the words of Zechariah, ‘Behold, thy King cometh unto thee; he is just and having salvation, lonely and riding upon an ass.’ This latter prophecy will bring it about that the daughter of Zion shall greatly rejoice in the Lord, her soul shall be joyful in her God.–Midr. Song of Songs 1.

So greatly shall Zion rejoice and so glorious will be the restoration of the Temple service in the days of Messiah, that three additional strings will be required besides the seven that were formerly upon the harps used by the Levites. In this way only will it be possible for the whole people to give expression to the depths of reverence for their God that shall then stir their hearts.–Numb. Rabba 15. and Tanchuma Behaloscho.

It was indeed pre-ordained that Jerusalem should be lost to the Israelites, but only until the coming of him concerning whom it was said, ‘Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion.’–Gen. Rabba 56.

And so the destruction of Jerusalem is to be locked upon as an event bringing joy in its train rather than as an irreparable loss or sorrow, for through it the coming of the Messiah and consequent expiation of

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Israel’s sin were rendered possible. For, just as all sacrifices were formerly brought to Jerusalem, so in future shall messengers come with offerings to Messiah, and all kings shall prostrate themselves before him.–Midr. Esther 1.

As you brought Me the perpetual light in the Temple, says God unto Israel, so will I bring unto you Him, Messiah, who is the personification of light, ‘the sun of righteousness’ promised through Malachi.–Midr. Tanchuma Tetzava.

Our father Abraham, by his meritorious life, won for himself the blessing. ‘Tell the stars, if thou art able to number them,’ He said unto him; ‘so shall be thy children.’ Isaac’s ready compliance with God’s demand to sacrifice his life evoked the promise, ‘I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven.’ Jacob was heartened with the prospect, ‘And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth.’ That which God promised to Abraham He has already fulfilled in that Moses was able to address to his people the words, ‘The Lord your God hath multiplied you, and behold, you are this day as the stars of heaven for multitude.’

Balaam was constrained to acknowledge the impossibility of ‘counting the dust of Jacob,’ and it might seem as if the prophet Hosea looked forward to the speedy realization of the promise made to Isaac when he gave utterance to the sentiment, ‘Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured or numbered.’ The fulfilment, however, will not come about until the time of the Messiah, when the heathen shall be altogether absorbed and God will pour out His Spirit upon all flesh.–Numb. Rabba 2.

The honour and majesty with which David tells us (Ps. 104.) that God is clothed, He will bestow on Messiah. As it is said, ‘His glory is great in Thy salvation, honour and majesty hast Thou laid upon Him.’–Numb. Rabba 14.

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Seeing in his spirit of prophecy that the time would come when the משכן, ‘Mishkan’ (the Sanctuary) would cease to exist and the Shechinah dwell no more in Israel’s midst, Moses was anxious to know by what means the sins of his people would then be expiated. The Almighty vouchsafed the information that He would choose a righteous man from their midst, and make him a משכן (pledge) for them, and through him their sins would be forgiven.–Exod. Rabba 35.

The prophets formerly recorded the good deeds performed by man, but now Elijah and Messiah record them and God puts His seal on the record.–Levit. Rabba 34.

‘Fear not, Abraham; I am thy shield and thine exceeding great reward,’ refers to the glorious epoch of Messiah. The Patriarch was apprehensive lest the covenant made with him might not prove lasting because of the sins of his descendants. God here gave him the assurance that, though his descendants fall into sin, there shall be one great and noble amongst them, who will be qualified to say to the avenging angel, ‘Stay thy hand.’ ‘Him will I accept and he shall be a pledge for my people.’–Midr. Song of Songs 1.

‘The sceptre shall not depart from Judah nor a lawgiver from between his feet until “Shiloh” come,’ refers also to Messiah, who is to enlighten Israel on the words of the Torah, and point out the errors of the people. Rabbi Chanan, on the other hand, holds that the teaching of Messiah will not be addressed to Israel, whose knowledge of the law of God will be all-sufficient. Rather will his task be to instruct the Gentiles: in the words of the prophet Isaiah (11. 10), ‘To him shall the Gentiles seek, and he shall assemble the outcast of Israel.’–Gen. Rabba 98.

The faithful of Israel are desirous of sepulture in the land of Palestine because, at the advent of Messiah, the resurrection will take place there before any other part

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of the world, but that will be the resurrection of the righteous only.–Gen. Rabba 96.

The general resurrection of the dead is appointed for the day of judgment, and when it takes place the revived souls will sing angelic songs.–Midr. Eccles. 1.

The death of the righteous is even like the Day of Atonement, in that each secures forgiveness for the sins of Israel.–Levit. Rabba 20.

A time has been appointed by God for the coming of Messiah. Yet if Israel but repent his sins, the glorious redemption will be hastened, and Messiah will make His appearance before the appointed time.–Exod. Rabba 25.

Great indeed will be the time of the approaching advent of Messiah. The wicked will be trodden down as ashes under the feet of the righteous, the trees will send forth their fragrance, and concerning the righteous it will be said, ‘He that is left in Zion and he that remaineth in Jerusalem shall be called holy.’

The seven years preceding the coming of the Son of David will be distinguished by the following signs: The first year rain will be scarce and partial; in the second year pangs of hunger will be felt; during the third year a severe famine will be experienced, and many human beings will die; men of renown and piety will perish, so that the Torah will be forgotten in Israel. This famine will be the last of the ten predestined for the world; the other nine occurred during the lives of Adam, Lemech, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Elijah, Elisha, the Judges, and King David. The fourth year will be marked neither by famine nor by plenty, but the fifth year will be one of prosperity, when the earth will bring forth abundance. There will then be joy in all parts of the earth, and a revival of study and knowledge of the Torah will be noticeable in the ranks of Israel. The sixth year will be full of rumours of war, and the seventh year will see the actual dread visitation of war. After all these signs have come to pass, at the end of

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the seventh year, the Son of David will make His appearance. According to other opinions, prior to the coming of Messiah the world will be terribly corrupt; there will be no compassion amongst men, great derision and contempt for the Torah and for piety will be universal, and truth will be almost unknown. Men will be as shameless of their evil doings as the very animals, and the few righteous who still exist will be in exceeding great distress. Persecution will be rife everywhere, the youth will have no respect for the aged, so that the aged will even rise before the presence of the young. The daughter will rebel against her mother, and a man’s worst enemies will be those of his own household. The reigning powers will become infidel, and none will be found to raise his voice in protest, so that mankind will seem to merit nought but extermination. If, therefore, we behold the generations becoming ever more corrupt, there is therein good reason to anticipate the advent of Messiah.–Midr. Song of Songs 2.

The צמח (‘Zemach’), mentioned by Jeremiah (23. 5) and by Zechariah (6. 12) is the Messiah.–Numb. Rabba 18.

Unlike the kings of this earth, God bestows some of His possessions and dignities upon beings of flesh and blood. He set Solomon upon His own throne (1 Chron. 29. 23). He caused Elijah to ride upon His own horse; that is to say, upon the storm and whirlwind. To Moses, He gave God’s rod, and upon the head of Messiah He placed His own crown.–Exod. Rabba 8. and Tanchuma Voera.

Many and varied are the things that in the Bible are designated ‘the first.’ The month of the Egyptian exodus God named the first month of the year (Exod. 12. 2). He revealed Himself as ‘the first’ to the prophet Isaiah (44. 6). Zion, too, is styled ‘the first’ (Jer. 117). Of Esau also the epithet is used (Gen. 25.) And, lastly, Messiah is mentioned as ‘the first’ (Isa. 41. 27).

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There is this intimate connexion between them, that God, who is the first, will rebuild Zion the first, and bring retribution on Esau (= Rome), known as the first, at the time of the advent of Messiah the first, in the month (= Nissan) which was appointed as the first.–Exod. Rabba 15.

Five things brought about the redemption of the Israelites from Egypt: (1) The sufferings of the people (2) their repentance; (3) the merits of their ancestors (4) the expiration of the time fixed for their captivity (5) the mercy of their God. These same causes will operate towards the realization of Israel’s Messianic hopes and lead to the last redemption through Messiah.–Deut. Rabba 2.

There will be a great difference between the Egyptian and the last redemption. ‘When you were delivered from Egypt,’ says God to Israel, ‘you had to depart in haste; at the last deliverance you shall not go in haste nor by Right, (Isa. 52. 12). At the Egyptian deliverance I, in my manifestation, went before you (Exod. 13. 21). At the last deliverance ‘the Lord will go before you and the God of Israel will be your reward.’ (Isa. 52. 12).–Exod. Rabba 19.

‘All your former redemptions,’ God says to Israel, have been accomplished through the instrumentality of men, and were, consequently, not lasting in their effect. You were delivered from Egypt through Moses and Aaron; you were rescued out of the hands of Sisera by Deborah and Barak; from the power of Midian you were saved by Shamgar. I myself will be your last and your everlasting Redeemer.’–Tanchuma Achray.

Great chariots, precious stones and other valuable gifts will the nations bring to Messiah. This means that the nations will bring Israel as a present to Messiah.–Midr. Song of Songs 4.

Just as Judah, though not the eldest, had always

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precedence of Reuben and the other tribes (as is to be seen in various parts of the Bible–Numbers 2. 3, 2. 9, 7. 12; Judges 1. 2, 20. 18), so he will have precedence in announcing the coming of Messiah, as foretold by the prophet Nahum (1. 15).–Numb. Rabba 2.

To Judah were revealed all the great men and what will happen to them from the time of Jacob till the coming of Messiah.–Numb. Rabba 13.

The perpetual light in the Mishkan was typical of the light of King Messiah.–Levit. Rabba 31.

All the gifts which Jacob felt himself constrained–out of fear–to present to Esau, will be restored to Israel at the advent of Messiah.–Gen. Rabba 75.

Moses, the first redeemer, rode on an ass, gave the Israelites manna for food, and brought up the water. So also shall Messiah be seen riding on an ass (Zech. 9), shall bring down manna from on high (Ps. 70. 16), and cause the rivers of Judah to flow with water (Joel 4. 18).–Midr. Eccles. 1.

‘The envy of Ephraim shall depart and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off’ (Isa. 11. 13). That means that amongst the Jews themselves, at the time of Messiah, there will be perfect peace and harmony.–Tanchuma Vayeegash.

There is no redemption without faith.–Tanchuma Beshallach.

Three things Israel despised, viz., the kingdom of heaven, the kingdom of the house of David, and the Temple, and God withholds His blessings from them till they mend their ways in these things. That they will do so the prophet Hosea (3. 5) tells us. ‘Afterwards shall the children of Israel return and seek their God’ means that they will again accept the kingdom of heaven, ‘and David their king’ obviously means the formerly rejected House of David, ‘and shall fear the Eternal and his goodness’ refers to the Temple.–Midr. Samuel 13.

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Messiah will be asked which place He selects as His residence. His reply will be, ‘Need you ask Me? Surely Zion, my holy mountain.’–Midr. Samuel 19.

Amongst the various names of Messiah, who was born on the day on which the Temple was destroyed, is that of מנחם בן עמיאל (Menachem ben Amiel) -Numb. Rabba 13.

The proper name of Messiah is ה׳ צדקנו (the Lord our righteousness).–Midr. Lament. 1.

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IT is neither desirable nor consistent with the teachings of Judaism, or with present day sentiment, to make attacks or adverse reflections on any religious creed. But, while disclaiming any desire to provoke theological controversy, or to accentuate religious differences, I should like to append a few observations to this collection of excerpts from the Midrash on the subject of Messiah.

What impels me to do this is the existence of organizations for the conversion of the Jews to Christianity, and the possibility of attempts being made to make capital out of some of the Rabbinic passages which I have cited.

It has been my privilege to come into contact with many Christian clergymen, both in England and in the Cape Colony, during more than forty years, and I have reason to know, and am glad to acknowledge, that there could not be a body of men more learned and pious, and more free from religious rancour and intolerance. My own experience has abundantly proved that it is possible for sincere Jews and Christians to associate on terms of friendship and mutual respect, and that no friction need arise from their differences of opinion on certain matters, But, at the same time, these differences do exist; and if a Jew refuses to adopt Christianity on the strength of arguments drawn from Jewish writings, he must be prepared to justify his attitude. I will therefore touch very briefly on one or two of the

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arguments brought forward in support of the belief in Jesus as the Messiah.

The prophetic utterances which Christians quote as foreshadowing the coming of Messiah are quoted repeatedly by the Rabbis, and, in my opinion, have been largely borrowed by Christians from that source. These prophecies cannot be assumed without further proof to refer to the founder of Christianity.

I do not wish to go into the question whether the term ‘Messiah’ means an epoch of time or a personal Messiah–a matter on which Jews are by no means unanimous.

But it must be apparent to every thinking and unbiassed mind that not one of the prophetic utterances and predictions or of the Midrashic sayings can apply to the founder of Christianity any more than to the other numerous claimants to the Messianic dignity who have appeared from time to time. Jesus of Nazareth, no less than the other claimants, utterly failed to answer to the description of the Messiah in the prophets, and to accomplish the work which the prophets predicted.

One has but to glance at the present condition of the world–not the heathen, but the Christian world–after more than nineteen hundred years from the supposed advent of the Messiah; one has but to observe how anxious, for instance, nations are to convert their Krupp guns into ploughshares and their machine guns into pruning hooks. One has but, amongst very many other things, to consider the peace on earth which now exists throughout the world! I would also remind those who see in the name ה׳ צדקנו as applied to Messiah, a convincing proof of the divinity of Jesus, that Jerusalem is also called ה׳ צדקנו (Jer. 33. 16). In a similar way, the altar which Moses erected–in commemoration of his victory over Amalek–he dignified by naming it ה׳ נסי (Exod. 17. 15).

And there is, in my humble opinion, amongst other

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arguments, one argument against the belief in Jesus as the Messiah, which is unanswerable.

The Messiah, according to all who believe in a personal Messiah, Jews and Christians alike, is to be a descendant of David. Now, according to Christianity, Jesus, the son–though not the only son–of Mary, was the offspring of immaculate conception, and had no earthly father from whom to take his pedigree. Even assuming that (as some of my Christian friends assert, but without proof) Mary was a descendant of David, that would not make Jesus a descendant, because pedigrees are reckoned from the father’s, and not the mother’s, side. God being the Father of Jesus, and God not being a descendant of King David, it follows that Jesus, His alleged son, cannot be King David’s descendant.

In support of my argument I may state that in the first four chapters of Numbers, the words לבית אבתם למשפהיתם ‘After their families by the house of their fathers,’ occur more than twenty times. There is not in the whole range of Holy Writ an instance where we find a phrase repeated so many times in so short a space.

And this tends to show Moses’ anxiety to impress us with the fact that descent is to be reckoned on the father’s side. On his father’s side Jesus is not a scion of David, and consequently he cannot be the Messiah.

Jerusalem, al-Quds

Ancient Sources Mount Ephraim and Benjamin

The Holy City Jerusalem – (Jerusalem, al-Quds)
Ierusalem in qua regnavit Adonibezec. Et post eam tenuere Iebusaei, e quibus et sortita vocabulum est. Quos multo post tempore David exterminans, totius eam Iudaeae provinciae metropolim fabricatus est eo, quod ibi locum templi emerit et impensas structurae Salomoni filio dereliquerit. Hanc esse Iosefus refert quae in Genesi scribitur Salem sub rege Melchisedec. Fuit autem in tribu Beniamin.
(Jerome 107:1-8)
Eusebius, Onomasticon 106:1-6 (ca. 295 A.D.); Jerome 107:1-8 (ca. 390 A.D.)
Jerusalem (Jos 10:1) of which Adonizedek was king, and then the Jebusites, after which it was also named Jebus, and which David drove away after a long time, and made the city into the capital of Judaea, as he purchased there a place for the temple and left the charge of building it to his son Solomon. Josephus says that this is the city which the Scripture calls Salem, of which Malchizedek was king. It fell into the lot of Benjamin.




Josh. 10:1-5 Adoni-zedek king of JerusalemWhen King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it, doing to Ai and its king as he had done to Jericho and its king, and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them, 2 he became greatly frightened, because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities, and was larger than Ai, and all its men were warriors. 3 So King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem sent a message to King Hoham of Hebron, to King Piram of Jarmuth, to King Japhia of Lachish, and to King Debir of Eglon, saying, 4 “Come up and help me, and let us attack Gibeon; for it has made peace with Joshua and with the Israelites.” 5 Then the five kings of the Amorites – the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon – gathered their forces, and went up with all their armies and camped against Gibeon, and made war against it.

Jud 1:21 The Jebusites’ Jerusalem
The Benjaminites did not drive out the Jebusites who lived in Jerusalem; so the Jebusites have lived in Jerusalem among the Benjaminites to this day.

2Sam 5:6-10 The conquest of Jerusalem
The king and his men marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who said to David, “You will not come in here, even the blind and the lame will turn you back” – thinking, “David cannot come in here.” 7 Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion, which is now the city of David. 8 David had said on that day, “Whoever would strike down the Jebusites, let him get up the water shaft to attack the lame and the blind, those whom David hates.” Therefore it is said, “The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.” 9 David occupied the stronghold, and named it the city of David. David built the city all around from the Millo inward. 10 And David became greater and greater, for the Lord, the God of hosts, was with him.

Sal 122 “Our feet are standing within your gates, O Jerusalem”
A Song of Ascents. Of David. 1 I was glad when they said to me, “Let us go to the house of the Lord!” 2 Our feet are standing within your gates, O Jerusalem.
3 Jerusalem – built as a city that is bound firmly together. 4 To it the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord, as was decreed for Israel, to give thanks to the name of the Lord. 5 For there the thrones for judgment were set up, the thrones of the house of David.
6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: “May they prosper who love you. 7 Peace be within your walls, and security within your towers.” 8 For the sake of my relatives and friends I will say, “Peace be within you.” 9 For the sake of the house of the Lord our God, I will seek your good.

Is 2:1-4 The Word of the Lord shall go forth from Jerusalem
The word that Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
2 In days to come the mountain of the LORD’s house shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised above the hills; all the nations shall stream to it. 3 Many peoples shall come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; that he may teach us his ways and that we may walk in his paths.” For out of Zion shall go forth instruction, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 4 He shall judge between the nations, and shall arbitrate for many peoples; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

Matt 21:1-11 The entrance of Jesus in Jerusalem
When they had come near Jerusalem and had reached Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, 2 saying to them, “Go into the village ahead of you, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her; untie them and bring them to me. 3 If anyone says anything to you, just say this, ‘The Lord needs them.’ And he will send them immediately.” 4 This took place to fulfill what had been spoken through the prophet, saying, 5 “Tell the daughter of Zion, Look, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” 6 The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them; 7 they brought the donkey and the colt, and put their cloaks on them, and he sat on them. 8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. 9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!” 10 When he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil, asking, “Who is this?” 11 The crowds were saying, “This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee.”

Act 2:36-47 The first Christian community of Jerusalem
36 Therefore let the entire house of Israel know with certainty that God has made him both Lord and Messiah, this Jesus whom you crucified.”
37 Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and to the other apostles, “Brothers, what should we do?” 38 Peter said to them, “Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 39 For the promise is for you, for your children, and for all who are far away, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to him.” 40 And he testified with many other arguments and exhorted them, saying, “Save yourselves from this corrupt generation.” 41 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added. 42 They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.
43 Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders and signs were being done by the apostles. 44 All who believed were together and had all things in common; 45 they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need. 46 Day by day, as they spent much time together in the temple, they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts, 47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.

Rev 21:1-4 The heavenly Jerusalem
Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2 And I saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “See, the home of God is among mortals. He will dwell with them as their God; they will be his peoples, and God himself will be with them; 4 he will wipe every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; mourning and crying and pain will be no more, for the first things have passed away.”


Eucherius, Letter to Faustus 1-9 (5th cent. A.D.)


Bishops’ list
Jacob (A.D. 62/6)
Simeon (A.D. 106/7)
Iustus / Iudas (A.D. 107-113)
Zacchaeus / Zacharias
Mathias / Matthew (A.D. 120)
Philip (A.D. 124)
Iudas Quiriacus (A.D. 134-148)
Mark (A.D. 156)

Take a Look Around

We are between Rev 6

7 When he opened the fourth seal, I heard the fourth living creature saying, “Come!”*n7.1 8 And behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on it, his name was Death. Hell*n8.1 followed with him. Authority over one fourth of the earth, to kill with the sword, with famine, with death, and by the wild animals of the earth was given to him.

And Here

9 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been killed for the Word of God, and for the testimony*n9.1 which they had. 10 They called out with a loud voice, saying, “How long, Master, the holy and true, until you judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” 11 A long white robe was given to each of them. They were told that they should rest yet for a little longer, until their fellow servants and their brothers, who would also be killed even as they were, should complete their course.

And on our why here

12 I saw when he opened the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake. The sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became as blood. 13 The stars of the sky fell to the earth, like a fig tree dropping its unripe figs when it is shaken by a great wind. 14 The sky was removed like a scroll when it is rolled up. Every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 15 The kings of the earth, the princes, the commanding officers, the rich, the strong, and every slave and free person, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains. 16 They told the mountains and the rocks, “Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, 17 for the great day of their*n17.1 wrath has come; and who is able to stand?”

How ever

2 Tim 2:8 Remember Yeshua the Messiah, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my Good News, 9 in which I suffer hardship to the point of chains as a criminal. But God’s word is not chained. 10 Therefore I endure all things for the chosen ones’ sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Messiah Yeshua with eternal glory. 11 This saying is faithful:

“For if we died with him,
we will also live with him.
12 If we endure,
we will also reign with him.
If we deny him,
he also will deny us.
13 If we are faithless,
he remains faithful,
for he cannot deny himself.”

Yom Kippur He is here!

He is here! The King of The Universe is in the Field!
We have heard the blast of the “Horns” and have been awakened to the cleaning and preparations of our hearts and minds. As the scripture says, Let this mind be in you, which was also in Messiah Yashua- Philipians 2:5 and in Psalms where is states, Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me. (Psalms 51:10).

These ten days between Yom Terurah and Yom Kippur, provide additional insight into what we need to correct in our lives. May we use all that we have learned to make the proper Teshuvah and change our lives for the better!

Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

Friday, October 3rd at sunset is the Day of Atonement. The “Time of the Kippur” The day of Covering.”

“Also the tenth day of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. It shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to the LORD.”- Leviticus 23: 27

Yom Kippur in Messiah

“This picture of a once a year Yom Kippur sacrifice depicts many truths. It speaks of the priestly work of Messiah Yeshua. Israel’s High Priest was initially dressed like royalty, but then took on simple garments and made atonement for the people. Our Messiah is Divine, and “although He existed in the form of God, He did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men” (Phil 2:6-7). Yeshua humbled Himself, being obedient to the point of death. He thus paid the sacrificial price for our sins. He is the High Priest of our confession. He entered a greater and more perfect Heavenly Tabernacle – one not made by mortal men. The blood He offered there was not that of mere goats and calves but was His own precious blood. With it, He entered the Holy Place once for all – having obtained eternal redemption for all who would call upon His Name.” – Batya Wootten, Israel’s Feasts And Their Fullness- pp 237-238

We Shall Wear White

On this day the priests of ancient Israel had a special washing in preparation for the offerings (Lev 16:4,24) Aaron washed himself and then was dressed in white linen garments. In our case we have been washed with the Blood of Messiah and on Yom Kippur we will wear white symbolizing the Holiness of the Bride of Messiah and being washed in His atoning blood. If you don’t have white clothes, no worries, please come knowing that the one that has cleansed you from your sins and made you white as snow, has the pure white garments that you will wear when you meet Him face to face on the great and awesome day of His return. – John 13:10, Revelation 1:5, Revelation 7:14