Ashkenazi/Sefardi Torah Leining/Reading MP3 Audio

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Special – Menucha V’Simcha.mp3
by the Miami Boy’s Choir 

Torah Reading – Ashkenaz (complete)01-Bereshit-01-PBereshit-Part01.mp3 (2.38 megs) [listen]01-Bereshit-01-PBereshit-Part02.mp3 (1.96 megs) [listen]01-Bereshit-02-Noach-Part01.mp3 (2.38 megs) [listen]show all 105 audio files>> 

Torah Reading – Ashkenaz Bereishis Ch.1-24 (by Rabbi Eliezer Farkash, talmud torah Rebbe in Israel.)Bereishis_perek_01.mp3 (7.86 megs) [listen]Bereishis_perek_02.mp3 (6.26 megs) [listen]Bereishis_perek_03.mp3 (6.98 megs) [listen]show all 24 audio files>> 

Torah Reading – Sefardi (complete) (most of Devarim by Chazan Moshe Shema)01-Bereshit-01-PBereshit-Part01.mp3 (2.38 megs) [listen]01-Bereshit-01-PBereshit-Part02.mp3 (2.39 megs) [listen]01-Bereshit-01-PBereshit-Part03.mp3 (1.03 megs) [listen]show all 129 audio files>>
 
Haftorah Reading – Ashkenaz (note:bar mitzva readings should NOT be self-study. A qualified Rabbi is an essential part of the experience.)haftorah-20040510-bechukosai.mp3 (1.03 megs) [listen]haftorah-20040517-bamidbar.mp3 (1.2 megs) [listen]haftorah-20040524-nasso.mp3 (1.44 megs) [listen]show all 53 audio files>> 

Tehilim Reading – Ashkenaz (30 days) (5 books)tehilim_ashk-001.mp3 (5.39 megs) [listen]tehilim_ashk-002.mp3 (4.93 megs) [listen]tehilim_ashk-003.mp3 (5.48 megs) [listen]show all 30 audio files>> 

Tehilim Reading – Chasidish (Israeli)001.mp3 (6.57 megs) [listen]002.mp3 (4.87 megs) [listen]003.mp3 (6.43 megs) [listen]show all 30 audio files>> 

Tehilim Reading – Sefardi (with cantillation notes and music. CD quality recordings) Populartehilim-001.mp3 [listen]tehilim-002.mp3 [listen]tehilim-003.mp3 [listen]show all 150 audio files>> 

Tehilim Reading – Yemenite Sefardi01.mp3 (3.76 megs) [listen]02.mp3 (2.88 megs) [listen]03.mp3 (3.74 megs) [listen]show all 30 audio files>> 

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Megilas Shir HaShirim, Esther, Ruth, Eicha  Cantorial Ashkenazi (from 613.org)megilas_shir_hashirim.mp3 (4.19 megs)megilah_esther.mp3 (13.55 megs)megilas_eicha_lamentations.mp3 (6.05 megs)megilas_ruth.mp3 (3.97 megs) 

 Sabbath Songs  

Menucha V’Simcha.mp3  Popular very beautiful Sabbath song by the Miami Boy’s Choir. one of my favorite songs. with special permission (for a limited time).
this audio is copyright. not for upload to other websites.
 

 Various Cantorial  by Cantor Pinchas Rabinovitzshabbat_songs_3.mp3 (3.59 megs)shabbat kidush/night songs.mp3 (4.4 megs)shabbat_evening_prayer_service.mp3 (4.93 megs)birkas_hamazon-grace_after_meals.mp3 (1.94 megs)chanuka-blessings_songs.mp3 (1.77 megs)high_holidays_melodies.mp3 (2.05 megs)pesach-haggada.mp3 (6.35 megs)pesach-manishtana-the4questions.mp3 (0.48 megs)kadish-ashkenaz.mp3 (0.42 megs)kadish-sefardi.mp3 (0.43 megs)cantorial_favorites.mp3 (15.17 megs)cantorial_melodies.mp3 (21.4 megs)cantorial songs.mp3 (24.4 megs) 


(Cantor Robert Brody) Pirkei Avot (Ethics of the Fathers) – SEFARDI (CD quality. by Rabbi Yitzchak Walknin. Rav of Beis Yisrael, Johanesburg)chazan’s introduction (in hebrew).mp3 (3.96 megs) [listen]pirkei_avot_ch1.mp3 (13.42 megs) [listen]pirkei_avot_ch2.mp3 (24.88 megs) [listen]pirkei_avot_ch3.mp3 (25.31 megs) [listen]show all 6 audio files>> 

Talmud Talmud Torah 
(the holy learning melody of Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv zt’l one of the greatest talmud scholars of our times. click here for details of the recording.)לימוד ניגונו של הרב יוסף שלום אלישיב זצ”ל פרטים כאן 

Various (hallel, kaddish, etc.)RFM-01-torah-noach.mp3 (2.94 megs) [listen]RFM-01-torah-cantilation_notes.mp3 (0.75 megs) [listen]RFM-04-hallel-hoshana-raba.mp3 (37 megs) [listen]Sefira Omer (by Chasidish Rebbe in Jerusalem) (3.9 megs) [listen]Seudas Hatzadikim | (PDF)
Kid’s bedtime shema (1.2 megs) [listen]Geula for Bris Mila (1.2 megs) [listen]show all 10 audio files>> Kaddish.mp3 (1 meg)      
    
Aliyah to the Torah.mp3 (1 meg, with short reading+kaddish)
(both secretly recorded in morning prayer)

TORAH: KI TISA

UNIVERSAL TORAH: KI TISA

By Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum

Torah Reading: KI TISA Exodus 30:11-34:35
Haftara: I Kings 18.1-39 (Sephardi ritual: I Kings 18.20-39).

PROVIDING THE MEDICINE BEFORE THE ILLNESS

The lengthy first section of our parshah of KI TISA (the entire first Aliyah in the synagogue Torah reading, up to Ex. 31:18) starts with a number of commandments concluding the account of the Sanctuary, its vessels and the daily services of its ministering priests. Then, with a reiteration and amplification of the Fourth Commandment, the Sabbath, its seriousness (violation is punishable by death) and its holiness as an eternal sign between G-d and Israel, Moses’ Forty Days on Mt. Sinai after the giving of the Ten Commandments come to an end. G-d gives him Two Tablets of Testimony, but as he readies to go down the mountain back to the people, G-d tells him that the worst had just happened: the people had already violated the Covenant by making a molten idol.

Even before the sin occurred, the commandments with which KI TISA opens provide precisely the remedy for the coming illness, which was rooted within the dark depths of selfish material lust and craving. The Sanctuary as a whole is a remedy for material craving and the lust for wealth. This is particularly true in the case of the mitzvah with which the parshah opens, the HALF SHEKEL which each Israelite was required to contribute to the Sanctuary and for the purchase of the daily sacrifices so as to put food on the “table” of G-d’s House, the Altar. The HALF SHEKEL is symbolic of charity and the will to GIVE, as opposed to the selfish desire to acquire and consume. The HALF SHEKEL is the remedy for the appetite for material wealth in itself.

When G-d spoke to Moses, He “showed him a kind of coin of fire, the weight of a half shekel” and He said to him: “THIS shall all who pass through the count give — a half shekel” (Ex. 30:13 and Rashi there). This fiery HALF SHEKEL COIN, which made every single citizen an equal partner in the Sanctuary and its upkeep, was the remedy for material lust and the appetite for wealth. Everyone was to join and be a partner in an enterprise that elevates material wealth — the finest vessels of gold, silver and copper, the finest fabrics, choicest animals, flour, oil, wine and spices — by incorporating them in the worship of the One G-d. This is where the display of wealth is truly fitting, a place where each may take a just pride in having a share. Having a joint share with everyone else in the national treasure, the Temple, keeping one’s eyes focussed on its splendid golden vessels and their implicit messages — these are the medicine for the selfish lust for wealth for its own sake.

Differences in wealth and assets were of no significance in this annual half shekel tax that made each citizen an equal partner in the Temple enterprise. The rich could not give more nor the poor less. Souls cannot be quantified and counted — each soul has its own unique significance that would be violated by trying to quantify it or assign it a number. What counts is that each person adds his or her own SELF and WILL, and is willing to play his or her part by paying the “head tax” and “casting a vote”. Numbers and wealth do not count in the eyes of G-d. What counts is each person’s WILL to make a contribution — to have an equal share with everyone else, without pride and without shame, in being part of the whole, feeding the Altar and bringing the fire of G-d’s presence into the world.

An integral part of this remedy for the sin of worshipping material wealth and splendor is the keeping of the Sabbath, with which the account of the Sanctuary and its vessels concludes. Observance of the Sabbath is more important even than the work of building the Sanctuary, which must also cease for one day every week. The race to work, build, make and create wealth must stop for one day out of every seven in order to remember that it is not work and material wealth that guarantee security but only G-d’s enduring Covenant. What is of prime importance is not our wealth but our soul. One day a week must be for the soul. “And on the seventh day, He rested, VAYNAFASH — and became ENSOULED” (Ex. 31:17).

* * *

THE LOSS OF INNOCENCE

To get a faint grasp of how, forty days after hearing G-d speak from heaven at Sinai, the people could worship a golden calf, it is necessary to understand that the ERUV RAV — the “mixed multitude” who went up with the Children of Israel out of Egypt — were by no means a mere rabble of fellow-travelers who jumped on the wagon together with a band of runaway slaves. The Exodus was far more than a slave breakout. It was a religious revolution, in which the entire idolatry-based worldview of Egypt together with its hierarchy of king, priests and wizards was publicly overthrown and defeated. According to the Zohar (beginning of KI TISA), the shattering of the existing culture and its assumptions caused some of Pharaoh’s leading magicians (the great scientists and philosophers of the time) to join Moses (who was “very great in the eyes of Pharaoh’s servants”, Ex. 11:3), on this new venture out into the wilderness in search of the One G-d. The Midrashim note that some of these magicians even brought their idols with them when they crossed the Red Sea.

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, commenting on the two golden calves made later on by Jeraboam, first king of the Northern Kingdom, asks how it is conceivable that he could have deceived a great multitude with such nonsense as worshiping cows. “Certainly this matter contained very deep and profound reasoning. And if a single page of the philosophical writings on which it was based had survived, it would distance many people from G-d and it would be impossible to come close to Him at all. And for this reason, it is a great benefit to the world that the works justifying this idolatry have been lost.” (Likutey Moharan II:32). [Likewise it is told in Sanhedrin 102b that the soul of King Menashe appeared to Rav Ashi, who asked him, “Since you were all so wise, why did you worship idols?” The king replied, “If you had been there, you would have picked up your robes and come running after us.” See also Taanis 25b, where the angel of the rains is compared to EGLA, a “calf”. The root EGLA is also related to IGUL, a circle or cycle, hinting at how the image of the golden calf was bound up with representing fundamental cosmic cycles.]

“They have turned aside quickly from the path that I commanded them, they have made for themselves a molten EGEL and they are prostrating to it and sacrificing to it and they said, These are your gods, O Israel, that brought you up from the land of Egypt.” (Ex. 32:8).

Whatever this EGEL was intended to represent, it was a deviation from the pathway of absolute monotheism taught at Sinai, which proscribed any kind of graven image. Unlike the path of Sinai, which was intended to lead to the holiness befitting a nation of priests, the festivities around the EGEL ended up in “play” (Ex. 32:6) — the three cardinal sins of idolatry, sexual immorality and murder (see Rashi ad loc.). The molten image, with its sophisticated associated “theology”, was at root a wizardly rationalization for material lust.

How it came about that Aaron, Moses’ older brother, played a part, albeit unwillingly, in the manufacture of this calf is one of the profound mysteries of the Torah. The two previous parshahs dealt with the elevation of wealth through the incorporation of gold, silver and other symbols of wealth into the Temple service. In TETZAVEH we saw that at the very center of the Temple service is the High Priest, with his beautiful garments (expressing “splendor”, HOD, kabbalistically the characteristic quality of Aaron). Yet suddenly we find that Aaron himself took the gold offered by those who wanted to make the calf, symbol of the ultimate degradation of wealth! This implies that there is a “fatal flaw” in HOD — that splendor, even in the service of true religion, may lead to corruption.

[And thus it was that in the time of the Second Temple, the priesthood became corrupt. The “fatal flaw” in Hod corresponds to the sciatic nerve that “jumped” when the angel who struggled with Jacob touched his thigh.]

While Moses was “blotted out”, as it were, from the previous parshah of TETZAVEH (as discussed in last week’s commentary), he is the central figure in our present parshah of KI TISA. In the previous parshah we saw that the role of the Priest, as epitomized in Aaron, is to secure atonement. But how can atonement come when the priest himself is in need of atonement — when the splendor of religious service itself has become corrupted because of the inherent “flaw” in this-worldly glory?

KI TISA teaches that ultimately, atonement can come only through from the Sage, as epitomized in Moses (whose characteristic quality is NETZACH, “Victory” — as when he “argues” with G-d when pleading for forgiveness, see Likutey Moharan I:4). Moses alone “found favor” in G-d’s eyes, eliciting the revelation of the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy (Ex. 34:6): Both before the sin and after the sin, G-d does not change. He is always the same: “loving and gracious, patient, and abundant in mercy and truth.” True atonement comes from practicing these same virtues: “And you shall go in His ways” (Deut. 28:9).

Repentance is not very glorious — it is hard to admit that one did wrong, to have to accept the consequences, atone and struggle to change while living with shame and contrition. In order to escape the ignominy of sin, practitioners of religion are sometimes tempted to present an outer face of sanctimony and irreproachability to others and even to themselves, thereby blinding themselves to their own flaws.

This is not the path of religion and repentance taught by the Torah, which gives naked exposure to people’s real flaws and shortcomings, including even the errors of an Aaron, a Moses or a David, none of whom were spared from criticism.

The Talmud states: “It was not really consistent with what David truly was that he should have sinned with Batsheva, and it was not really consistent with what the Children of Israel were that they sinned with the golden calf. Then why were they made to sin? It was a decree of the King in order to give penitents an excuse” (Avodah Zarah 4b and Rashi there). They were made to sin in order to teach others the ways of repentance (“I will teach sinners your ways”, Psalms 51:15). If they could sin, and still bear the pain and repent, then so can others.

While the sanctimonious nations of the world never cease berating and criticizing the Jews and Israel for their supposed sins, the actual followers of the Torah continue with the inglorious work of Teshuvah, scrutinizing themselves for flaws and striving to correct them instead of denying and papering over them. “And He, being compassionate, will atone for sin”.

* * *

MESHENICHNAS ADAR, MARBIN BESIMCHAH!!! “When Adar arrives, we maximize SIMCHAH!!!”

Shabbat Shalom!

Avraham Yehoshua Greenbaum

Daf Notes

Please have our brothers and sisters living in Eretz Yisroel in mind when you are learning the Daf.

It should also be l’zchus Refuah Shleimah for  all the Israeli soldiers who are currently in critical condition.
An extensive list of their names appears below.

Daf Notes is currently being dedicated to the neshamah of

Tzvi Gershon Ben Yoel (Harvey Felsen) o”h

May the studying of the Daf Notes be a zechus for his neshamah
and may his soul find peace in Gan Eden and be bound up in the Bond of life.

Burying the dead and accompanying a bride

 

The braisa says that one should bury the dead and accompany a bride who is getting married, even if it means he must stop learning Torah. They related that Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Ila’i would stop learning to bury the dead and accompany a bride. The braisa explains that this is only when there aren’t enough already involved, but if there are enough, one should not stop learning Torah to participate.

 

The Gemora asks how much is considered enough for a burial, and gives the following opinions:

  1. Rav Shmuel bar Inia cites Rav saying 12000 people and 6000 people announcing the funeral with shofars (or 6000 of them announcing).
  2. Ulla says it is enough people to reach from the gate of the city to the cemetery.
  3. Rav Sheishes says 600,000, for the Torah of the departed must be returned with as many people as when it was given.

 

 

These numbers are only for someone who learned verses and Mishnayos, but if someone taught others Torah, there is no limit as to how many people must be involved.

The Divine Presence in exile

 

The Gemora cites a braisa in which Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai says that we can see how beloved Bnai Yisrael are from the fact that Hashem’s presence always stays with them. When they were in Egypt, His presence was with them, as the verse says that Hashem revealed himself to the ancestors of kohanim in Egypt. When they were exiled to Babylonia, His presence went with them, as the verse says: “I have [been] sent to Babylonia for your sake.” In the future, when Hashem will redeem them, His presence will be with them, as the verse says that Hashem will shav – return your exile, using the word shav – return and not the word haishiv – bring back, as if Hashem himself will return.

 

The Gemora asks: Where in Babylonia is His presence?

 

Abaye answers that it is in the shul of Hutzel and in the shul of shaf v’yasiv – destroyed and resettled in Nehard’a. The Gemora explains that it isn’t in both places simultaneously, but rather it alternates between them.

 

Abaye says that he should be rewarded since he makes it a point to go to these places, even when it’s up to a parsah out of his way.

 

Shmuel’s father and Levi were once sitting in the shaf v’yasiv shul in Nehard’a, and the divine presence came. They heard a loud noise, and they got up and left. Rav Sheishes was once there, and also heard such a sound, but he stayed. Angels came and tried to scare him into leaving. He asked Hashem why he should leave, as it’s proper for Hashem, who is never insulted, to defer to Rav Sheshes, who is a human who can get insulted, and Hashem told the angels to leave him alone.

 

Rabbi Yitzchak says that the verse which says that Hashem will be for Bnai Yisrael as a mini [Bais ha] mikdash refers to synagogues and study halls in Babylonia, while Rabbi Elozar says that it refers to Rav’s house in Babylonia.

 

Rava says that the verse which says that Hashem has been a shelter for us in each generation refers to synagogues and study halls in the exile.

 

Abaye says that originally he would learn Torah at home and pray in a synagogue, but when he encountered the verse in Tehillim which says “Hashem, I like the shelter of Your house,” he would also learn in a synagogue.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa in which Rabbi Elazar haKapar says that, in the future, synagogues and study halls in Babylonia will be established in Eretz Yisrael, as the verse says that Mt. Carmel and Mt. Tavor came to Mt. Sinai for the giving of the Torah. If these mountains, which temporarily came to learn Torah, were established in Eretz Yisrael, certainly these places, in which Torah is read and taught in public, will certainly be established.

 

Bar Kapara explains that the verse which asks why “these gavnunim mountains are agitated” refers to a heavenly voice which told these mountains that they have no complaint against the choice of Mt. Sinai for the giving of the Torah, as they are all considered blemished, as one blemish is giben (like gavnunim). Rav Ashi says that we see from here that one who is haughty is considered blemished.

Shortcut through a synagogue

 

The Mishna said that one may not make a synagogue a kapandarya. Rava explains that this means one may not use it as a shortcut, as kapandarya is a contraction ofadmakifna adarai – instead of my going around the rows of houses, ai’ol beha – I will enter here. Rabbi Avahu says one may use it for a shortcut if there was originally a path through it. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak says that if one entered not for a shortcut, he may use it as a shortcut (i.e., exit in a different door). Rabbi Chelbo cites Rav Huna saying that if one entered a synagogue to pray, he may use it as a shortcut, as the verse about the Bais Hamikdash says that when one would enter from the north, they would exit in the south.

Uprooting vegetation

 

The Mishna said that if vegetation grew in a destroyed synagogue, one may not uproot them, to cause anguish. The Gemora cites a braisa that says that one may not uproot them to feed his animal, but my uproot them and leave them, and says that the Mishna is also referring to uprooting them to feed his animal.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa which lists prohibitions in a cemetery. One may not be light-headed, one may not graze animals, one may not run an irrigation ditch through it, and one may not uproot vegetation, and if one did uproot it, he must burn it in place, in order to honor the dead. The Gemora explains that the conclusion of the braisa which gives the goal of honoring the dead, refers to the prohibition on being light-headed there.

4 Portions

 

The Mishna says that if Rosh Chodesh Adar is on Shabbos, we read Shkalim then, but if it is during the week, we read the Shabbos before, and skip the next one. On the second Shabbos, we read Zachor, on the third, we read Parah, and on the fourth Hachodesh, and on the fifth we return to the regular order. We interrupt the regular order for Rosh Chodesh, Chanuka, Purim, communal fasts, ma’amados, and Yom Kippur.

Shkalim

 

The Gemora cites the Mishna which says that on the first or Adar they announce the collection of Shkalim and uprooting of kila’im.

 

The Gemora says that kila’im is logical for that time, since that is the time that vegetation grows, but why do they announce the collection of shkalim?

 

Rabbi Ravi cites Rabbi Yoshiya saying that the verse teaches that on Nisan we must start bringing the communal sacrifices from the new collection. We therefore announce the collection at the start of Adar to give people time to bring their shkalim in time for the first of Adar.

 

The Gemora suggests that this isn’t consistent with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who says that we start discussing the laws of Pesach only two weeks before Pesach, as he would say we announce only 2 weeks before Pesach.

 

The Gemora says that it can be consistent with this position, as they only set up formal collection tables on the 15th of Adar, 2 weeks before Nisan.

Reading for shkalim

 

The Gemora cites a dispute about what we read for Shkalim. Rav says we read the portion about the tamid offering, while Shmuel says we read ki sisa, which describes collecting the half shekel from Bnai Yisrael.

 

The Gemora says that we understand why ki sisa is called shkalim, since it mentions the half shekel, but why would the tamid portion be called Shkalim?

 

The Gemora answers with Rabbi Tavi’s statement that the communal sacrifices, like the tamid, had to be brought from the new shkalim, making the tamid relevant to collecting shkalim.

 

The Gemora then says that we understand the reading of the tamid, as it refers to a sacrifice, which was the reason for collecting yearly shkalim, but why would we read ki sisa, as it refers to the shkalim collected for the construction of the mishkan, not for sacrifices?

 

The Gemora answers with Rav Yosef’s statement that the three mentions of the wordterumah – collection in ki sisa refer to three funds: the fund for the sockets used in the mishkan, the fund for sacrifices, and the maintenance fund.

 

The Gemora asks how this Rosh Chodesh’s reading is different, if we read tamid, which is in the same section as every Rosh Chodesh’s reading?

 

The Gemora answers that on a regular Rosh Chodesh on Shabbos, we would read 6 aliyos in the regular portion, and one of Rosh Chodesh, but on shkalim, we only read Rosh Chodesh.

 

The Gemora challenges this, as this is only according to the one who says that we interrupt the regular reading for the 4 portions, but not according to the one who says that we only interrupt the regular haftaros.

 

The Gemora answers that if we read the regular portion, shkalim is still different, as we read 3 aliyos from the regular portion, and 4 from tamid.

 

The Gemora challenges Rav from a braisa which says the haftara for shkalim is the story of Yehoyada’s new system of maintenance fund donations, which is related to ki sisa.

 

The Gemora answers that is also related to tamid, based on Rabbi Tavi’s statement about the requirement to offer the sacrifices from the new shekel collection.

 

The Gemora challenges Rav from a braisa which says that if shkalim falls out on the weekly portion directly preceding or following it, they read shkalim two weeks in a row. The weekly schedule of portions around the season of shkalim includes ki sisa, but not tamid, which is in Pinchas.

 

The Gemora deflects this by saying that the braisa may refer to those in Eretz Yisrael who would complete the Torah in a triennial cycle, making it possible for Pinchas to be read around shkalim time.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa supporting Shmuel. The braisa says that if Rosh Chodesh Adar is on Shabbos, we read ki sisa and the haftara about Yehoyada.

3 Torahs

 

Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha says that if Rosh Chodesh Adar is on Shabbos, we take out 3 Torah scrolls – one for the regular portion, one for Rosh Chodesh reading, and one for ki sisa. He also says that if Rosh Chodesh Teves (which is on Chanuka) is on Shabbos, we take out 3 Torah scrolls – one for the regular portion, one for Rosh Chodesh reading, and one for Chanuka reading. The Gemora explains that if he would have just taught the ruling about Rosh Chodesh Teves, we may have thought that he rules like Rav about what we read for shkalim. Once he taught the ruling about Rosh Chodesh Adar, we inferred the ruling about Rosh Chodesh Teves.

Rosh Chodesh Teves

 

The Gemora cites a dispute about the reading for Rosh Chodesh Teves that falls during the week. Rav Yitzchak Nafcha says that 3 read the Rosh Chodesh reading, and one reads the Chanuka reading, while Rav Dimi from Chaifa says that 3 read the Chanuka reading, and one reads the Rosh Chodesh reading. Rabbi Mani says that Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha’s position is more logical, as we always start with the more common of two items. Rabbi Avin says that Rav Dimi’s position is more logical, since Rosh Chodesh is the reason for reading 4 aliyos, so it should be the one to be read 4th.

 

The Gemora asks what the final ruling is. Rav Yosef says we deemphasize Rosh Chodesh, Rabba says we deemphasize Chanuka, and the Gemora rules that we deemphasize Chanuka, reading it last.

Shkalim and the weekly portion

The Gemora discusses what we read when shkalim falls out on the portion of teztaveh (which precedes ki sisa). Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha says we read 6 aliyos of tetzaveh, and one (for shkalim) of ki sisa.

 

Abaye challenges this, as people will think that all of the reading is the weekly portion, since they are read contiguously.

 

Rather, Abaye says that we read 6 aliyos all the way until the end of shkalim, and then for the 7th aliyah we re-read the ki sisa portion for shkalim.

 

The Gemora challenges Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha from a braisa which says that if shkalim falls out on a preceding or following portion, we read and repeat it, implying that we read ki sisa twice.

 

Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha notes that even according to Abaye we must explain how we repeat when it falls on the following portion by saying that we read ki sisa two weeks in a row. Similarly, he can explain the braisa to mean that when it falls on the preceding portion, we read ki sisa two weeks in a row.

 

The Gemora discusses what we read when shkalim falls out on the portion of ki sisa. Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha says we read 6 aliyos from after shkalim until the end of ki sisa, and then read shkalim for the 7th.

 

Abaye challenges this, as people will think they are just reading the weekly portion out of order, and therefore says we read the whole portion of ki sisa in 6 aliyos, and then repeat the start of ki sisa for shkalim in the 7th aliyah.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa which rules like Abaye’s position.

 

 

 

INSIGHTS TO THE DAF

The Small Sanctuary

By Gil Student

The Talmud (Megillah 29a) expounds on the prophetic verse “I shall become to them a small sanctuary in the countries where they shall come” (Ezekiel 11:16) – that in the times of exile the synagogue is the equivalent of the Temple. Synagogues are not merely a post-exilic invention to facilitate communal prayer but, rather, are part of an historical continuum beginning with the Tabernacle built in the Desert, continuing with the two Temples in Jerusalem, and culminating with the third, messianic Temple. This equation bears clear and documented halakhic ramifications.
The Tosefta (Megillah 3:14) rules that a synagogue’s doors must be opposite its ark as was done in the Tabernacle. This architectural law, based solely on the equation of a synagogue with the Desert era sanctuary, is cited by halakhic authorities throughout the ages. This is certainly an indication that the synagogue’s designation as a “small sanctuary” is an halakhic mandate, particularly in regard to its architecture.

Similarly, the Mishnah (Megillah 3:3, 28a) states that a synagogue that is in ruins and unusable retains its sanctity because the Torah relates God’s statement, “I will make your sanctuaries desolate” (Leviticus 26:31); even in destruction they are still called sanctuaries. Thus, the status of synagogues as small sanctuaries has halakhic ramifications in terms of holiness, as documented in a Tannaitic halakhic passage. The medieval commentators expand on this as follows below.

 

The precise sanctity of a synagogue is explained by Nahmanides as being the same sanctity of any other item used for a mitzvah, such as a sukkah or shofar. This is a holiness that exists while the mitzvah is being performed. However, at times when a synagogue is neither in use nor set aside for a mitzvah it retains no sanctity. Rabbenu Nissim of Gerona (Ran on Rif, Megillah 8a) disputes this understanding at length and instead explains that synagogues are imbued with a holiness while certain key prayers are being recited and, for other times, the Sages decreed that a rabbinic sanctity be instilled into synagogues. R. Eliezer of Metz (Yere’im , 324), however, is of the view that synagogues always have a biblical sanctity similar to that of the Temple in Jerusalem and, therefore, the biblical obligation to fear the Temple (Leviticus 19:30) applies equally to synagogues. This is echoed by R. Moshe of Coucy (Semag, aseh 164) and R. Yitzhak of Corbille (Semak, 6). Significantly, commentators have deduced from Maimonides’ words that he is of the same view. Certainly, according to R. Eliezer of Metz et al., the synagogue is halakhically and biblically a small sanctuary. Even according to Rabbenu Nissim the equation of synagogues and the Temple stands, albeit alternating between a biblical and a rabbinic level. Only according to Nahmanides is the equation left on the aggadic level.

The Gemara (Megillah 28a-b) quotes the Tosefta (Megillah 2:11) that frivolity is prohibited in a synagogue. Many see the root of this prohibition as the holiness due to its status as a “small sanctuary.” Just like we are obligated to fear the holy Temple, we are similarly required to act respectfully inside its exilic counterpart.

 

R. Mordekhai ben Hillel (Megillah, ch. 3 no. 827) writes that the biblical prohibition against tearing down parts of the Temple also applies to a synagogue because it is a “small sanctuary.” This is agreed to by many of the scholars mentioned above and is brought down as practical halakhah by R. Moshe Isserles in his authoritative glosses to Shulhan Arukh (Orah Hayim 152:1).

 

In an important responsum (no. 161), R. Yosef Colon (fifteenth century) contends that the Sages consistently equated synagogues with the Temple. In addition to the passage of “small sanctuary” and the Mishnah regarding a desolate synagogue, R. Colon cites Shabbos 11a where the law is stated that the synagogue must be the tallest building in a town. As a prooftext for this rule the Talmud quotes a verse in Ezra (9:9) regarding the building of the Temple – “To raise the house of our Lord.” Evidently, the Talmud considers verses about the Temple to be valid indicators about the proper architecture of the synagogue. R. Colon further cites the Mordekhai who extends this equation to the holiness of the Temple, as we saw above, and then extends the concept himself to equate donations to a synagogue with donations to the Temple.

 

Clearly, the idea of the synagogue having the status of the Temple is more than a mere homiletic device and has extensive halakhic applications. In the lands of exile our sole refuge of holiness from the mundane world is the synagogue, the sanctuary that accompanies us in our wanderings. All agree that the respect due to such a holy place demands that frivolity be prohibited in the synagogue much as it was in the Temple.

 

It is also noteworthy that the classical peshat commentaries to Ezekiel – Rashi, R. David Kimhi, R. Yosef Kara, Metzudat David, R. Yitzhak Abrabanel – all explain the phrase “I shall become to them a small sanctuary” (Ezekiel 11:16) as referring to synagogues in exile.

 

 

 

 

 

L’zecher Nishmas HaRav Raphael Dov ben HaRav Yosef Yechezkel Marcus O”H

 

Names of Wounded Soldiers 

???? ?? ???? Achiya ben Nira

????? ?? ???? Aviad bn Sima

???? ?? ???? ???? Ohad bn Elice Ganon

???? ?? ??? Ohad bn Rut

???? ????? ?? ????? Itai Aharon bn Ilana

????? ?? ?????? Eli’El bn Ariela

????? ?? ??? Eliyahu bn Chava

??? ?????? Arad bn Leora

??? ?? ???? Erez bn Sarit

?? ???? ?? ???? ??? Ben David Ben Esther Nelly

?? ???? ?? ??? Ben Tzion bn Rachel

??? ?? ???? Gil bn Michal

??? ???? ?? ???? David Yitzchak bn Suzi

???? ?? ????? Dolev Ben Kochava

????? ???? ?? ???? Daniel Mandes bn Miriam

Ziv ben Ayelet

???? ?? ???? Yoav bn Gila

???? ?? ??? Yoni bn Sara

????? ????? ?? ???? Yonatan Shimon bn Gittel

????? ?? ???? ?????? Yonatan bn Hagit Avigail

????? ????? ?? ????? Yonatan Shimon bn Masud

???? ?? ???? Yakov bn Lepo

???? ?? ??? (???? ????? ??????) Yaron ben Mor

??? ?? ?? ??? Yishai Dov bn Neri

??? ?? ???? ?? ??? Yishai Dan HaLevi ben Neri

???? ?? ?????? Li’El bn Ilanit

??? ????? ?? ???? Mor Mordechai bn Sarit

???? ?? ????? Michal bn Frida

????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? Mordechai Chai bn Bracha Yehudis

??? ???? ?? ?????? Moshe Elad bn Iti’El

???? ?? ??? Nerya bn Chava

Niv ben Ayelet

?????? ?? ????? Ovadya bn Ravit

???? ?? ???? Amos bn Sigal

???? ?? ???? Amitai ben Miriam

??? ?? ????? Rami bn Ramond

???? ?? ?????? Roie ben Yehudit

???? ?? ?????? Rotem ben Arnona

?? ?? ??????. Ron Ben Ziporrah

???? ?? ??? ????? Shoham bn Yafa Flora

??? ?? ???? Shaked bn Ora

??? ?? ??? Geeh ben Maggie

?? ???? ?? ???? Tal Chaim Ben Tamara

????? ?? ????? Arnon ben Iris

?????? ????? ?? ?????? Tzuriel Eliyahu ben Shlomit

???? ???? ?? ???? ???? Maoz Chaim ben Chasia Malka

??? ?? ?????? ???? Moshe ben Siglit Chaviv

???? ?? ??? Echud ben Rachel

???? ?? ??? Ori ben Rachel

????? ???? ?? ???? Yehuda Pinchas ben Shlemah

??? ?? ??? David Ben Rachel

???? ?? ????? Benya ben Penina

????? ??? ?? ????? ???? Oshik Moshe ben Shoshana Zahari

???? ?? ???? Yogev ben Sima

???? ?? ??? Nitzn ben Mazal

?? ?? ????? Shai ben Orly

????? ???? ?? ????? Avraham Nachman ben Osnat

???? ?? ????? Yaakov ben Osnat

????? ?? ???? ????? Daniel ben Nomi Penina

??? ???? ?? ??? Ron Menachem ben Chana

????? ?? ???????? Namrod ben Victoria

????? ???? ?? ????? Yonatan Menachem ben Shoshana

??? ?? ????? Saar ben Devorah

??? ?? ????? Ohr ben Devorah

?????? ?????? ?? ???? AviChayil Elimelech ben Nechama

???? ????? ?? ???? Yair Shmuel ben Nechama

??? ?? ???? Dani ben Milah

???? ?? ?? ??? Eydan ben Batsheva

??? ?? ???? Ohr ben Rikki

???? ?? ????? Maor ben Ronit

???? ????? ?? ????? Moti Mordecai ben Ronit

????? ?? ???? Amishav ben Esther

????? ?? ????? Lior ben Nitzna

???? ?? ??? Yair ben Yael

????? ?? ??? Lior ben Rus

?? ?? ???? Tal ben Hagit

???? ?? ??? Yoav ben Bella

Daf Notes

The Mishna had stated: This is the general rule: A mitzvah that must be performed during the night may be performed the entire night. The Gemora asks: What is the Mishna coming to include? The Gemora answers: The rule is adding the mitzvah of eating the korban Pesach and it is not following the opinion of Rabbi Elozar ben Azariah, who maintains that mitzvah of eating the korban Pesach is only until midnight and not the entire night.  (21a)

 

WE SHALL RETURN TO YOU, HAKOREI LEMAFREIA

 

The Mishna states: One who reads the Megillah may do so standing or sitting. If two people read the Megillah simultaneously, the people listening have fulfilled their obligation. A place where the custom is to recite a blessing before reading the Megillah, they may do so and in a place where the custom is not to recite a blessing before reading the Megillah, they do not have to.

 

On Mondays and Thursdays and by Shabbos Mincha, three people are called to the Torah; not less than three and not more. We do not finish the reading with a portion from the Prophets (haftorah). The one who is called up initially recites the blessing prior to the Torah reading and the one who is called up last recites the blessing at the conclusion of the Torah reading. (Anyone called up in between does not recite a blessing at all.)

 

On Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamoed (Intermediary Days) four people are called to the Torah; not less than four and not more. We do not finish the reading with a portion from the Prophets.  The one who is called up initially recites the blessing prior to the Torah reading and the one who is called up last recites the blessing at the conclusion of the Torah reading.

 

This is the general rule: A day that there is a korban mussaf (or the Mussaf prayer) and it is not a Festival, four people are called to the Torah. On a Festival, five people are called to the Torah. On Yom Kippur, six people are called to the Torah. On Shabbos, seven people are called to the Torah. We do not decrease from them, but we may add, and they finish the reading with a portion from the Prophets. The one who is called up initially recites the blessing prior to the Torah reading and the one who is called up last recites the blessing at the conclusion of the Torah reading.  (21a)

 

The Mishna had stated that the Megillah can be read sitting. The Gemora infers that the Torah must be read standing. Rav Avahu says that this is derived from a verse which states that Hashem was standing when He taught the Torah to Moshe. This verse – if it was not written in that way (referring to God in physical terms), it would not be possible to say it on our own. We learn from here that the person reading the Torah to the congregation must be standing.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa that from the days of Moshe until Rabban Gamliel, they would study Torah standing. Afterwards, people became weaker and they would study torah while sitting; they didn’t have the strength to stand. This is what the Mishna in Sotah (49a) is referring to when it states that once Rabban Gamliel died, the glory of Torah terminated. (21a)

 

The Mishna had stated that the Megillah can be read from two people simultaneously. The Gemora cites a braisa which states that this is not the halachah regarding the Torah reading.

 

The Gemora cites a braisa: One would read (one verse) from the Torah and another would translate (the reader would pause providing time for the translator to explain and expound on the verse). Two people are not allowed to translate simultaneously (since the commandments mentioned in the Torah must be understood clearly). Two people may not read from the Prophets simultaneously, but two can translate at the same time. Hallel and the Megillah may be recited and translated by ten people simultaneously. The Gemora explains the reason for this: These readings are beloved (since they are read infrequently), and people can concentrate better and clearly hear the words even when there are many readers.  (21a – 21b)

 

The Mishna had stated: A place where the custom is to recite a blessing before reading the Megillah, they may do so and in a place where the custom is not to recite a blessing before reading the Megillah, they do not have to. The Gemora explains this to be referring to the blessing after the Megillah, but prior to the Megillah, one is required to make a blessing. This is known from the ruling that regarding all mitzvos, one recites the blessing for the mitzvah over laasiyasan, meaning before performing them. The word over means before, as is evident from the verse that states: Achimaatz ran by way of the plain and went before (vayaavor) the Cushite. Alternatively, we derive that the word over means before from the verse: then he went before them, or from the verse: and their king goes before (vayaavor) them, with Hashem at their head.

 

The Gemora states: There are three blessings recited before the Megillah. They are: mikra Megillah, she’asa nisim and shehechiyonu. Afterwards, the blessing of harav es riveinu (He, who takes up our grievance) is recited. (21b)

 

The Mishna had stated: On Mondays and Thursdays and by Shabbos Mincha, three people are called to the Torah. The Gemora explains what these three people correspond to. Rav Ashi said that they correspond to the Torah, Prophets and Writings. Rava said that they correspond to the Kohanim, Levites and Israelites.

 

A braisa is cited: At least ten verses must be read during the Torah reading. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These ten verses correspond to the ten unoccupied men who will always be available to create a minyan (ten adult males are needed for the prayer service in the synagogue). Rav Yosef said: They correspond to the Ten Commandments. Rabbi Yochanan said: They commemorate the ten statements through which Hashem created the world.

 

Rava states: Whichever one of the readers (the first, second or third) read four verses (out of the ten instead of only three), is considered praiseworthy. (21b)

 

The Mishna had stated: The one who is called up initially recites the blessing prior to the Torah reading and the one who is called up last recites the blessing at the conclusion of the Torah reading. (Anyone called up in between does not recite a blessing at all.)

 

The Gemora states: Nowadays, all the people called up to the Torah recite a blessing before the reading and afterwards. The reason the Rabbis established that the readers recite both blessings is to protect against the false impression that blessings are not required for the reading of the Torah. (Those who enter the synagogue late and those who leave early will not realize that a blessing was recited in the beginning and at the conclusion of the reading.) (21b)

 

INSIGHTS TO THE DAF

 

STANDING WHILE LEARNING

 

The Gemora states that from the days of Moshe until Rabban Gamliel, they would study Torah standing. Afterwards, people became weaker and they would study torah while sitting; they didn’t have the strength to stand. This is what the Mishna in Sotah (49a) is referring to when it states that once Rabban Gamliel died, the glory of Torah terminated.

 

The Gemora in Brochos (28a) says that when Rabban Gamliel was the Rosh Yeshiva, his policy was that any student who was not “tocho c’baro,” his inside was not like his outside, would not be allowed to enter the Beis Medrash. Not everyone who applied was automatically accepted into his Yeshiva. Rabban Gamliel only accepted students who were honest and sincere, through and through, without any hints of fakery or hypocrisy.

 

The Gemora relates that there was a subsequent change in the leadership and Rabbi Elozar ben Azariah was appointed the new Rosh Yeshiva. He implemented a new policy: Everyone was invited into the Beis Medrash even someone who was not “tocho c’baro.” As a result, the Gemora records: Many benches were added to the Beis Medrash.

 

Two questions can be asked. Firstly, how were they able to ascertain who was a “tocho c’baro” and who wasn’t; only Hashem is capable of peering into someone’s heart? Secondly, why does the Gemora state that many benches were added; we are not interested in the amount of chairs there were; it should have said that there were many more students learning on the account of the new policy?

 

Rav Nosson Gishtetner answers based on our Gemora: In the days of Rabban Gamliel, the sincere students would be learning standing; that was a symbol that he was learning Torah for the sake of the mitzvah and not for any ulterior motive. When the new policy was enacted, more benches were added because the generation was weaker and they did not have the ability to stand while they were learning. (Margoliyos Hashas)

 

MEGILLAH AT NIGHT

 

The Mishna states: The entire night is appropriate for the reaping of the omer (in preparation for the barley offering on the sixteenth of Nissan) the burning of the sacrificial fats and limbs.

 

The Rishonim are bothered why the Mishna doesn’t list other mitzvos that are applicable by night, such as Krias shema and the reading of the Megillah.

 

The Rashba says: It can be inferred from this Mishna that the primary obligation to read the Megillah is only by day and not by night. This is because the main publicizing of the miracle happens by day. He rules that a brocha is not recited on the reading of the Megillah at night.

 

This is the reason why the villagers only read the Megillah during the day and not by night. The Rashba does conclude that the villagers should read the Megillah at night, but they are not required to read it publicly.

 

The Turei Even compares the reading of the Megillah to the celebration of Purim based on the passuk in the Megillah [9:7]: And these days should be remembered and celebrated. Just like the Purim feast must be eaten during the day, so too the primary Megillah reading should be done by day.

 

Pnei Yehoshua writes that the obligation to read the Megillah is by day because the victory over their enemies transpired by day and the night is not a time for battle; it is merely customary to read the Megillah by night. We nevertheless recite a brocha by night similar to other customs where a brocha is recited.

 

However, the Sheiltos (78) maintains that the reading of the Megillah by night is more essential than the reading by day.

 

DAILY MASHAL

By: Reb Binyomin Adler

 

The Gemara states that the readers of the Torah correspond to the three groups amongst the Jewish People, the Kohanim, the Leviim, and the Yisraelim. One must wonder why the three readers of the Torah correspond to these three groups if the three readers themselves are a Kohen, a Levi and a Yisroel (See Sifsei Chachamim for an answer).
Perhaps the answer to this question is that although the Kohen, the Levi and the Yisroel seem to be from distinct categories, in essence all the classes are one. A Kohen needs the Levi and the Yisroel to function, as without the Levi he cannot perform the service in the Bais HaMikdash alone, and without the Yisroel, he will not have who to pray for and he will not have a people for whom to bring sacrifices for. Similarly, the Levi needs the Kohen and the Yisroel, and the Yisroel needs the Kohen and the Levi. Thus, corresponding to these three seemingly disparate readers there are three groups, and each group incorporates the other groups in their service of HaShem.

 

L’zecher Nishmas HaRav Raphael Dov ben HaRav Yosef Yechezkel Marcus O”H

 

Names of Wounded Soldiers 

 

???? ?? ???? Achiya ben Nira

????? ?? ???? Aviad bn Sima

???? ?? ???? ???? Ohad bn Elice Ganon

???? ?? ??? Ohad bn Rut

???? ????? ?? ????? Itai Aharon bn Ilana

????? ?? ?????? Eli’El bn Ariela

????? ?? ??? Eliyahu bn Chava

??? ?????? Arad bn Leora

??? ?? ???? Erez bn Sarit

?? ???? ?? ???? ??? Ben David Ben Esther Nelly

?? ???? ?? ??? Ben Tzion bn Rachel

??? ?? ???? Gil bn Michal

??? ???? ?? ???? David Yitzchak bn Suzi

???? ?? ????? Dolev Ben Kochava

????? ???? ?? ???? Daniel Mandes bn Miriam

Ziv ben Ayelet

???? ?? ???? Yoav bn Gila

???? ?? ??? Yoni bn Sara

????? ????? ?? ???? Yonatan Shimon bn Gittel

????? ?? ???? ?????? Yonatan bn Hagit Avigail

????? ????? ?? ????? Yonatan Shimon bn Masud

???? ?? ???? Yakov bn Lepo

???? ?? ??? (???? ????? ??????) Yaron ben Mor

??? ?? ?? ??? Yishai Dov bn Neri

??? ?? ???? ?? ??? Yishai Dan HaLevi ben Neri

???? ?? ?????? Li’El bn Ilanit

??? ????? ?? ???? Mor Mordechai bn Sarit

???? ?? ????? Michal bn Frida

????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? Mordechai Chai bn Bracha Yehudis

??? ???? ?? ?????? Moshe Elad bn Iti’El

???? ?? ??? Nerya bn Chava

Niv ben Ayelet

?????? ?? ????? Ovadya bn Ravit

???? ?? ???? Amos bn Sigal

???? ?? ???? Amitai ben Miriam

??? ?? ????? Rami bn Ramond

???? ?? ?????? Roie ben Yehudit

???? ?? ?????? Rotem ben Arnona

?? ?? ??????. Ron Ben Ziporrah

???? ?? ??? ????? Shoham bn Yafa Flora

??? ?? ???? Shaked bn Ora

??? ?? ??? Geeh ben Maggie

?? ???? ?? ???? Tal Chaim Ben Tamara

????? ?? ????? Arnon ben Iris

?????? ????? ?? ?????? Tzuriel Eliyahu ben Shlomit

???? ???? ?? ???? ???? Maoz Chaim ben Chasia Malka

??? ?? ?????? ???? Moshe ben Siglit Chaviv

???? ?? ??? Echud ben Rachel

???? ?? ??? Ori ben Rachel

????? ???? ?? ???? Yehuda Pinchas ben Shlemah

??? ?? ??? David Ben Rachel

???? ?? ????? Benya ben Penina

????? ??? ?? ????? ???? Oshik Moshe ben Shoshana Zahari

???? ?? ???? Yogev ben Sima

???? ?? ??? Nitzn ben Mazal

?? ?? ????? Shai ben Orly

????? ???? ?? ????? Avraham Nachman ben Osnat

???? ?? ????? Yaakov ben Osnat

????? ?? ???? ????? Daniel ben Nomi Penina

??? ???? ?? ??? Ron Menachem ben Chana

????? ?? ???????? Namrod ben Victoria

????? ???? ?? ????? Yonatan Menachem ben Shoshana

??? ?? ????? Saar ben Devorah

??? ?? ????? Ohr ben Devorah

?????? ?????? ?? ???? AviChayil Elimelech ben Nechama

???? ????? ?? ???? Yair Shmuel ben Nechama

??? ?? ???? Dani ben Milah

???? ?? ?? ??? Eydan ben Batsheva

??? ?? ???? Ohr ben Rikki

???? ?? ????? Maor ben Ronit

???? ????? ?? ????? Moti Mordecai ben Ronit

????? ?? ???? Amishav ben Esther

????? ?? ????? Lior ben Nitzna

???? ?? ??? Yair ben Yael

????? ?? ??? Lior ben Rus

?? ?? ???? Tal ben Hagit

???? ?? ??? Yoav ben Bella

Daf Notes

It is written in the Megillah [6:1]: On that night, the sleep of the king was disturbed. Rabbi Tanchum said: This is referring to Hashem (to take action against His enemies). The Rabbis said: This is referring to the angels and Achashverosh (the angels were pestering him to reward Mordechai for saving him). Rava said: It is referring to Achashverosh’s sleep. He began to think: Why was Haman invited by Esther to the feast? Is there a plot to assassinate me? Why wouldn’t a friend inform me? Perhaps I have not paid back someone who deserves being rewarded? Immediately, he instructed his servants to bring him the chronicles of the kingdom.

 

The Gemora states that the record book was read by itself. Shimshai, the king’s scribe was erasing the incident of Mordechai saving the king’s life and the angel Gavriel rewrote it.

 

Rabbi Assi said: Rabbi Sheila, a man from the village of Temarta, drew a lesson from this, saying: If a record on earth, which is for the benefit of Israel, cannot be erased, how much more so regarding a record in Heaven (that it will not become erased)!

 

It is written: Nothing has been done for him. Rava said: They answered him like that (that some small token of reward was necessary) not because they loved Mordechai, but rather, because they hated Haman (and they knew it would infuriate him).

 

It is written: He had prepared for him. A Tanna stated: This means that he (Haman) had prepared (the gallows) for himself.

 

It is written: And do so to Mordechai etc. Haman said to him: Who is Mordechai? Achashverosh said to him: The Jew. He said: There are many Mordechais among the Jews. He replied: The one who sits at the king’s gate. Haman said to him: For him (the reward) of one village or one river (from which taxes can be collected) is sufficient! Achashverosh replied: Give him that as well; let nothing be omitted from that which you have spoken. (15b – 16a)

 

The Gemora relates that Achashverosh ordered Haman to get Mordechai, dress him in the royal garments and lead him through the city on the king’s horse proclaiming, “Thus shall be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor.” Haman located Mordechai teaching his students the laws of kemitzah (scooping the flour for the minchah offering). Mordechai observed Haman arriving and he told his students to leave the area for Haman is coming to kill him. Mordechai wrapped himself and began to pray.

 

Haman sat before the students and waited for Mordechai to finish praying. Haman asked them: What were you studying? They replied: When the Beis Hamikdosh was in existence, one can offer a fistful of flour and receive atonement through it. Haman responded: Your fistful of flour came and has overridden my ten thousand silver coins. When Mordechai heard this, he said to Haman: Wicked person that you are; if a slave acquires property, to whom does the property belong? (Since Haman was Mordechai’s servant, the money was rightfully Mordechai’s.)

 

Haman said to Mordechai: Get up, don these clothes and ride this horse. Mordechai said: I must first go the bathhouse and get a haircut since it would not be proper to wear the king’s clothes otherwise. Haman was forced to bath Mordechai himself and cut his hair because Esther had issued an order that all bathhouses and barbers must close for the day. Haman was groaning while he was cutting Mordechai’s hair. He said: Is it proper for a person with such prominence (referring to himself) to become an attendant for a bathhouse and a barber. Mordechai reminded him that he (Haman) was the barber in Kartzum for twenty-two years.

 

When Haman finished cutting Mordechai’s hair, he dressed him and told him to climb onto the horse. Mordechai responded: I am too weak on the account of the days of fasting. Haman bent down so Mordechai could step on his back and ascend the horse. As Mordechai was climbing up, he kicked Haman. Haman asked him: Doesn’t it say in your Torah that one should not rejoice when his enemy falls? Mordechai responded: That is only by a Jewish enemy.

 

As Haman was leading Mordechai through the streets, they passed by Haman’s house. Haman’s daughter witnessed the scene and thought that Mordechai was leading her father. She took the bowl from the bathroom and threw it on her father’s head. When she realized that it was her father, she fell off the roof and died.

 

Mordechai returned to his sackcloth and to his fasting and Haman rushed to his house, mourning for his daughter and with his head covered from the garbage that was thrown upon his head. (16a)

 

It is written in the Megillah [6:13]: Haman told his wife Zeresh and all his friends about all that had happened to him. And his wise men and his wife Zeresh told him, “If this Mordechai, before whom you have begun to fall, is of Jewish descent, you will not prevail over him, for you will certainly fall before him.” The Gemora asks: They are initially called ‘his friends’ and then they are referred to as ‘his wise men.’ Rabbi Yochanan said: Whoever says a wise thing, even a gentile, is called wise.

 

They said to Haman: If Mordechai comes from the other tribes, you can prevail over him, but if he is from the tribe of Yehudah, Binyamin, Ephraim or Menasheh, you will not prevail over him. The Gemora cites Scriptural proofs for this. (16a)

 

It is written: But you shall surely fall before him. Rabbi Yehudah bar Ila’i expounded: Why are two fallings mentioned here? Haman’s friends said to him: This people is likened to the dust and it is likened to the stars. When they go down, they go down to the dust, and when they rise they rise to the stars.

 

It is written: And the king’s chamberlains came and hastened [va-yavhilu] to bring Haman. The use of this

word [va-yavhilu] tells us that they brought him while he was in a state of confusion [behalah].

 

It is written: For we have been sold, I and my people etc . . . for the adversary does not care that the king will be damaged. She said to him: This adversary does not care for the damage of the king. He was jealous with Vashti and had her killed, and he is jealous with me and wants to kill me.

 

It is written: Then the king Ahasuerus said, and he said to Esther the queen. Why ‘said’ and again ‘said’? Rabbi Avahu replied: He first spoke to her through an intermediary. When she told him that she came from the house of Shaul,immediately, ‘he said to Esther the queen.’

 

It is written in the Megillah [7:6]: “A man who is a persecutor and an enemy: this evil Haman!” Esther replied. Rabbi Elozar said: This teaches us that she was actually pointing to Achashverosh (derived from the extra words ‘a persecutor and an enemy’) and an angel came and pushed her hand so as to point to Haman. (16a)

 

The Megillah writes further [7:7-9]: The king arose in wrath and left the wine feast and went to the palace garden, while Haman stood up to beg Queen Esther for his life, for he realized that the king’s hostility towards him was irrevocable.

 

And the king returned from the palace garden to the wine-feast chamber, and Haman had fallen upon the divan upon which Esther was reclining. The king said, “Does he even intend to seduce the queen while I am in the palace!” As soon as these words left the king’s mouth the face of Haman was covered.

 

Then Charvonah, one of the chamberlains that attended the king, said, “In addition, there is the gallows that Haman erected for Mordechai, who spoke for the King’s good, standing at Haman’s house, fifty cubits high!” “Hang him upon it!” said the king

 

The Gemora expounds: Achashverosh’s returning is compared to his arising. Just as the arising was in wrath, so too, the returning was in wrath. Achashverosh went to the garden and found ministering angels in the form of men who were uprooting trees from the garden. He said to them: What are you doing? They replied: Haman has ordered us to do this. He came into the house, and witnessed Haman falling upon the couch. Rabbi Elozar said: (Since it is written ‘falling’ and not ‘fallen’ ) This teaches us that an angel came and forced him to fall on it and he couldn’t get up. Achashverosh then exclaimed: Woe on the inside, and woe on the outside! Will you assault the queen before me in the house? Rabbi Elozar said: Charvonah also was a wicked man and implicated in the plot to destroy the Jewish people. When he saw that his plan was not succeeding, he at once fled, and so it is written [Iyuv 27:22]: And he cast upon him and did not pity, from his hand he surely flees.

 

The Megillah continues [7:10]: And they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordechai and the king’s wrath abated. The Gemora asks: Why are there two abatements mentioned (an extra letter written)? The Gemora answers: One referring to Hashem and the other to Achasverosh. Others answer: One is on account of Esther and the other on account of Vashti. (16a)

 

It is written in the Torah [45:22]: He [Yosef] gave them all changes of clothes, and to Binyamin he gave three hundred [pieces of] silver and five changes of clothes. The Gemora asks: Is it possible that Yosef would stumble on the precise action that caused him to suffer? Yaakov had given Yosef a nice woolen garment which caused the brothers to become jealous and prompted them to sell him to Mitzrayim. Should Yosef now favor Binyamin over the other brothers? Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes answers: Yosef was hinting that a descendant of his will go in front of a king dressed in five royal garments (referring to Mordechai).

 

The Gemora proceeds to expound on other Scriptural verses dealing with Yosef and his brothers in Mitzrayim.

 

It is written: And he fell upon his brother Binyamin’s neck. How many necks did Binyamin have? Rabbi Elozar said: He wept for the two Temples which were destined to be in the territory of Binyamin and would eventually be destroyed.

 

And Binyamin wept upon his neck: he wept for the tabernacle of Shiloh which was destined to be in the territory of Yosef and would eventually be destroyed.

And behold your eyes see and the eyes of my brother Binyamin. Rabbi Elozar said: He said to them: Just as I bear no resentment against my brother Binyamin who had no part in my selling, so too I have no resentment against you.

 

That it is my mouth that speaksto you. As my mouth is, so is my heart.

 

And to his father he sent the following: ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt. What are ‘the good things of Egypt’? Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes said in the name of Rabbi Elozar: He sent him aged wine which old men find very comforting.

 

And his brethren also went and fell down before him. Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes said in the name of Rabbi Elozar: This bears out the popular saying: A fox in its hour — bow down to it.

 

The Gemora asks: You compare Yosef to a fox! Where was his inferiority to his brothers? Rather, if this was said by Rabbi Elozar, it was stated as follows: And Israel prostrated himself upon the bed’s head. Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes said in the name of Rabbi Elozar: A fox in its hour — bow down to it.

 

And he (Yosef) comforted them (the brothers) and spoke kindly to them. Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes said in the name of Rabbi Elozar: This tells us that he spoke to them words which greatly reassured them, saying: If ten lights were not able to put out one, how can one light put out ten? (16a – 16b)

 

It is written in the Megillah [8:16]: The Jews had light and gladness and joy and honor. Rav Yehudah said: Light is referring to Torah; Gladness is referring to the festivals; Joy is referring to circumcision; Glory is referring to tefillin. (16b)

 

Rabbi Adda of Yaffo rules: When one is reading the Megillah, he must recite the names of the ten sons of Haman in one breath. This is because they all died at precisely the same moment.

 

Rabbi Yochanan said: The ‘vav’ of the name Veyezasa (the last son of Haman mentioned in the Megillah) must be elongated like a pole, for they all were hanged on one pole.

 

Rabbi Chanina bar Pappa rules in the name of Rabbi Sheila, a man from the village of Temarta: The ten sons of Haman and the songs of praise regarding the thirty-one kings of Canaan who were defeated by Yehoshua are written in the form of a half-brick on top of a half-brick (referring to the written words) and a full-brick on top of a full-brick (referring to the empty spaces). (This is in contrast to other songs that are written in the form of a half-brick on top of a full-brick.) The Gemora offers a reason for this: It is to indicate that our enemies shall never recover from their downfall.

 

It is written: And the king said to the queen, “In Shushan the capital the Jews have slain, etc.” The mode of expression informs us that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth (in order that he shouldn’t complete his tirade against the Jews).

 

But when she came before the king, he said with a letter ‘He said’? It should be, ‘she said’!? Rabbi Yochanan rules: The Megillah should be recited by what is written in the scroll (it should not be read by heart).

 

It is written: Words of peace and truth. Rabbi Tanchum said, or, according to some, Rabbi Assi: This shows that the Megillah requires to be written on etched lines, like an actual Torah scroll.

 

It is written: And Esther’s words confirmed. The Gemora asks: Only Esther’s words (contributed to the miracle), and not the matters of the fasts? Rabbi Yochanan said: We must read as follows: The matters of the fasts … and Esther’s words confirmed these regulations of Purim.

 

It is written: For Mordechai the Jew was viceroy to king Achashverosh, and great among the Jews and popular with the majority of his brethren. The Gemora asks: Of the majority of his brethren but not of all his brethren? This informs us that some members of the Sanhedrin separated from him. (16b)

 

 

INSIGHTS TO THE DAF

 

Three Hundred Pieces of Silver

 

The Gemora states: It is written [Breishis: 45:22]: He [Yosef] gave them all changes of clothes, and to Binyamin he gave three hundred [pieces of] silver and five changes of clothes. The Gemora asks: Is it possible that Yosef would stumble on the precise action that caused him to suffer? Yaakov had given Yosef a nice woolen garment which caused the brothers to become jealous and prompted them to sell him to Mitzrayim. Should Yosef now favor Binyamin over the other brothers? Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefes answers: Yosef was hinting that a descendant of his will go in front of a king dressed in five royal garments (referring to Mordechai).

 

The commentators ask: Why didn’t it bother the Gemora that Yosef gave to Binyamin three hundred pieces of silver, and none to the other brothers? Wouldn’t that have caused jealousy as well?

 

The Chasam Sofer answers based upon the Gemora in Gittin (44a), which states: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who sells his slave to an idolater; we penalize him and force him to buy him back for up to ten times the value of the slave.

 

An ordinary slave is worth thirty silver coins, as we know from the halachah in the Torah that if an ox gores and kills a slave, the owner must pay the master thirty silver coins.

 

Accordingly, the brothers who sold Yosef should have been obligated to pay the penalty of ten times Yosef’s value in order to redeem him. Since they did not redeem him, they therefore owed to Yosef three hundred silver coins (30 ? 10 = 300). This is why Yosef did not give them the three hundred silver coins that he gave to Binyamin. Binyamin, who was not involved in the selling at all, rightfully deserved this amount, and therefore, Yosef was not concerned that this would be a cause for jealousy.

 

 

 

DAILY MASHAL

 

HAMAN AND THE OMER

 

The Gemora relates that Achashverosh ordered Haman to get Mordechai, dress him in the royal garments and lead him through the city on the king’s horse proclaiming, “Thus shall be done for the man whom the king wishes to honor.” Haman located Mordechai teaching his students the laws of kemitzah (scooping the flour for the mincha offering).

 

Rashi states that this occurred on the sixteenth of Nissan, the day the korban omer is offered in the Beis Hamikdosh.

 

The Maharal explains the connection between the omer offering and the story of Purim. The Omer offering reveals the miracles that are hidden inside of nature. By bringing the first grain to the Beis Hamikdosh, we are demonstrating that even the nature of the world is governed by Hashem. This was the method used to overcome Haman. The miracles were concealed from the human eye. The means to conquer Haman and Amalek is by exposing the concealed miracles, thus confirming that all which appears natural is controlled by Hashem.

 

The idea that Amalek can only be defeated through natural means was mentioned before and it bears repeating.

 

The Mishna states that whenever Moshe held up his hand, Israel prevailed [against Amalek]…’. The Mishna asks, do Moshe’s hands make or break the battle? Rather, this teaches you that so long as Israel were looking upwards and subjugating their hearts to their Father in Heaven, they were victorious; if not, they would fall.

 

The Netziv in Merumei Sadeh asks on the Mishna’s question. What was so strange about Moshe’s hands making the battle? Didn’t Moshe’s hands split the sea and perform other miracles as well through his hand?

 

He answers that the fight against Amalek had to be won in a natural way and not through a miracle. Perhaps we can add that fighting Amalek is in essence the fight that we have daily with our evil inclination. This fight could not be left to miracles. This is what is bothering the Mishna. Could the battle have been won through Moshe’s hands like the other miracles? The Mishna’s answer is no, it could not have been since this battle required a victory through natural means.

 

Let us examine the answer of the Mishna. Rather, this teaches you that so long as Israel were looking upwards and subjugating their hearts to their Father in Heaven, they were victorious; if not, they would fall. Isn’t the Mishna stating that they relied on a miracle from Above. They looked upwards and they were victorious. How can this be explained?

 

The Gemora in Kiddushin (29b) relates an incident with Abaye and Rav Acha bar Yaakov. There was a certain demon that haunted Abaye’s Beis Medrash, so that when two people entered, even by day, they were injured. Abaye instructed the community not to provide Rav Acha shelter when he would arrive in the city, thus forcing the father to spend the night at the Beis Medrash; perhaps a miracle will happen [in his merit]. Rav Acha entered the city and spent the night in that Beis Medrash, during which the demon appeared to him in the guise of a seven-headed dragon. Every time Rav Acha fell on his knees in prayer one head fell off. The next day he reproached them: ‘Had not a miracle occurred, you would have endangered my life.’

 

The Maharsha in his commentary to Kiddushin asks that how did Abaye have permission to place Rav Acha in such a precarious position. One is forbidden to rely on a miracle? He answers that Abaye understood the potency of Rav Acha’s prayer. Abaye was certain that Rav Acha’s prayers to the Almighty would be answered and that this is not a miracle. Hashem has instilled in this world the power of prayer and incorporated it into the natural order of the world.

 

This is what our Mishna is answering. Amalek has to be defeated through natural means and that is what Klal Yisroel did at that time. They cried out to Hashem and subjugated their hearts towards Him and were answered.

 

 

 

 

 

L’zecher Nishmas HaRav Raphael Dov ben HaRav Yosef Yechezkel Marcus O”H

 

Names of Wounded Soldiers 

 

???? ?? ???? Achiya ben Nira

????? ?? ???? Aviad bn Sima

???? ?? ???? ???? Ohad bn Elice Ganon

???? ?? ??? Ohad bn Rut

???? ????? ?? ????? Itai Aharon bn Ilana

????? ?? ?????? Eli’El bn Ariela

????? ?? ??? Eliyahu bn Chava

??? ?????? Arad bn Leora

??? ?? ???? Erez bn Sarit

?? ???? ?? ???? ??? Ben David Ben Esther Nelly

?? ???? ?? ??? Ben Tzion bn Rachel

??? ?? ???? Gil bn Michal

??? ???? ?? ???? David Yitzchak bn Suzi

???? ?? ????? Dolev Ben Kochava

????? ???? ?? ???? Daniel Mandes bn Miriam

Ziv ben Ayelet

???? ?? ???? Yoav bn Gila

???? ?? ??? Yoni bn Sara

????? ????? ?? ???? Yonatan Shimon bn Gittel

????? ?? ???? ?????? Yonatan bn Hagit Avigail

????? ????? ?? ????? Yonatan Shimon bn Masud

???? ?? ???? Yakov bn Lepo

???? ?? ??? (???? ????? ??????) Yaron ben Mor

??? ?? ?? ??? Yishai Dov bn Neri

??? ?? ???? ?? ??? Yishai Dan HaLevi ben Neri

???? ?? ?????? Li’El bn Ilanit

??? ????? ?? ???? Mor Mordechai bn Sarit

???? ?? ????? Michal bn Frida

????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? Mordechai Chai bn Bracha Yehudis

??? ???? ?? ?????? Moshe Elad bn Iti’El

???? ?? ??? Nerya bn Chava

Niv ben Ayelet

?????? ?? ????? Ovadya bn Ravit

???? ?? ???? Amos bn Sigal

???? ?? ???? Amitai ben Miriam

??? ?? ????? Rami bn Ramond

???? ?? ?????? Roie ben Yehudit

???? ?? ?????? Rotem ben Arnona

?? ?? ??????. Ron Ben Ziporrah

???? ?? ??? ????? Shoham bn Yafa Flora

??? ?? ???? Shaked bn Ora

??? ?? ??? Geeh ben Maggie

?? ???? ?? ???? Tal Chaim Ben Tamara

????? ?? ????? Arnon ben Iris

?????? ????? ?? ?????? Tzuriel Eliyahu ben Shlomit

???? ???? ?? ???? ???? Maoz Chaim ben Chasia Malka

??? ?? ?????? ???? Moshe ben Siglit Chaviv

???? ?? ??? Echud ben Rachel

???? ?? ??? Ori ben Rachel

????? ???? ?? ???? Yehuda Pinchas ben Shlemah

??? ?? ??? David Ben Rachel

???? ?? ????? Benya ben Penina

????? ??? ?? ????? ???? Oshik Moshe ben Shoshana Zahari

???? ?? ???? Yogev ben Sima

???? ?? ??? Nitzn ben Mazal

?? ?? ????? Shai ben Orly

????? ???? ?? ????? Avraham Nachman ben Osnat

???? ?? ????? Yaakov ben Osnat

????? ?? ???? ????? Daniel ben Nomi Penina

??? ???? ?? ??? Ron Menachem ben Chana

????? ?? ???????? Namrod ben Victoria

????? ???? ?? ????? Yonatan Menachem ben Shoshana

??? ?? ????? Saar ben Devorah

??? ?? ????? Ohr ben Devorah

?????? ?????? ?? ???? AviChayil Elimelech ben Nechama

???? ????? ?? ???? Yair Shmuel ben Nechama

??? ?? ???? Dani ben Milah

???? ?? ?? ??? Eydan ben Batsheva

??? ?? ???? Ohr ben Rikki

???? ?? ????? Maor ben Ronit

???? ????? ?? ????? Moti Mordecai ben Ronit

????? ?? ???? Amishav ben Esther

????? ?? ????? Lior ben Nitzna

???? ?? ??? Yair ben Yael

????? ?? ??? Lior ben Rus

?? ?? ???? Tal ben Hagit

???? ?? ??? Yoav ben Bella

 

 

 

 
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