Lesson 29

Torah Moshe 3:
Vayikra / ויקרא
Leviticus Chapter 16: 1-27

Parashah 29: ACHAREY Mot (after the death) (אחרי מות) 16:1-18:30
[In regular years read with Parashah 30, in leap years read separately]

Day of Atonement Yom Kippur
16:1 (i) וידבר יהוה אל־משׁה אחרי מות שׁני בני אהרן בקרבתם לפני־יהוה וימתו׃

Vayedaber ADONAI el-Moshe acharei mot shenei benei Aharon bekarvatam lifnei-ADONAI vayamutu:

And ADONAI spoke to Moshe after the death of the two sons of Aharon, when they offered profane fire before ADONAI, and died;

16:2 And ADONAI (יהוה) said toMosheh:

Speak to Aharon your brother, that he come not at all times into the kadosh place within the Paroket (curtain, vail) before the Kapporet (mercy seat), which [is] upon the aron (ark); that he die not: for I will appear (ra ah) in the cloud upon ha Kapporet (mercy seat).

16:3 With this (בּזאת) Aharon come into the kadosh place: with a young bullock for a chatat (sin offering), and a ram for a Olah.

16:4 He shall put on Ketonet (כתנת) Bad (בד) Kodesh (קדשׁ), and he shall have the Mikhnesei (מכנסי) Bad on his body, and shall be girded with a Avnet (אבנט) Bad , and with the Mitznefet (מצנפת) Bad shall he be attired: These [are] Bigdei (בגדי) kadosh(קדשׁ) ; therefore shall he mikvah his body in water, and so put them on.

16:5 And he shall take of the congregation of Benai Yisrael two kids of the goats for a chatat (sin offering), and one ram for a Olah.

16:6 And Aharon shall offer his bullock of the chatat , which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.

16:7 And he shall take the two goats, and present them before ADONAI (יהוה) at the door of the tent of meeting.

16:8 And Aharon shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for ADONAI (יהוה), and the other lot for the Azazel (scapegoat).

16:9 And Aharon shall bring the goat upon which ADONAI (יהוה)’S lot fell, and offer him [for a chatat (sin offering).

16:10 But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the Azazel (scapegoat), shall be presented alive before ADONAI (יהוה), to make an atonement with him, [and] to let him go for a Azazel into the wilderness.

16:11 And Aharon shall bring the bullock of the chatat (sin offering),, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his beit, and shall kill the bullock of the chatat (sin offering), which is for himself:

16:12 And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before ADONAI (יהוה), and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the Paroket (curtain, vail):

16:13 And he shall put the incense upon the fire before ADONAI (יהוה), that the cloud of the incense may cover the Kapporet that is upon the testimony, that he die not:

16:14 And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the Kapporet (mercy seat) eastward; and before the Kapporet shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.

16:15 Then shall he kill the goat of the chatat (sin offering), that [is] for the people, and bring his blood within the Paroket (curtain, vail), and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the Kapporet (mercy seat), and before the Kapporet:

16:16 And he shall make an atonement for the kadosh place, because of the Tum’ah of Benai Yisrael, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that remains among them in the midst of their Tum’ah.

16:17 And there shall be no man in the tent of meeting when he goes in to make an atonement in the kadosh place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation Yisrael.

16:18 (LY:ii)

And he shall go out to the altar that is before ADONAI (יהוה), and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and

put it upon the horns of the altar round about.

16:19 And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and purify it, and hallow it from the Tum’ah of Benai Yisrael.

16:20 And when he has made an end of reconciling the kadosh place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat:

16:21 And Aharon shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the Benai Yisrael, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness:

16:22 And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities to a eretz not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.

16:23 And Aharon shall come into the tent of meeting, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the kadosh place, and shall leave them there:

16:24 And he shall rachatz (wash) his flesh with water in the kadosh place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his Olah, and the Olah of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people.

16:25 (RY:ii, LY:iii)

And the fat of the chatat (sin offering), shall he burn upon the altar.

16:26 And he that let go the goat for the Azazel (scapegoat) shall kabas (wash) his clothes, and rachatz (bathe) his flesh in mayim, and afterward come into the camp.

16:27 And the bullock for the chatat (sin offering), and the goat for the chatat (sin offering), whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the kadosh place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.

16:28 And he that burns them shall kabas (wash) his clothes, and rachatz (bath) his body in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.

10th Tishrei
16:29 And this shall be a statute for ever to you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourns among you:

16:30 For on that day shall the Kohen make an atonement for you, to purify you, that you may be Tahor (clean) from all your sins before ADONAI (יהוה).

16:31 It shall be a shabbat of rest to you, and you shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.

16:32 And the Kohen, whom he shall anoint, and whom he shall consecrate to minister in the Kohen’s office in his father’s stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes, erev the Bigdei haKodesh (Set apart garments):

16:33 And he shall make an atonement for the kadosh mikdash (sanctuary), and he shall make an atonement for the tent of meeting, and for the altar, and he shall make an atonement for the Kohenim, and for all the people of the congregation.

16:34 And this shall be an everlasting statute to you, to make an atonement for the Benai Yisrael for all their sins once a year. And he did as ADONAI (יהוה) commanded Moshe.

Acharei Mot means after the death of Nadav and Avihu, Hashem restricts access to His Kadosh presence. Acharei Mot / Kedoshim is a good example of how obedience and forgiveness work together to transform us into the image of Yeshua by giving us the opportunity to repent, and allowing us to serve HaShem in a way that is pleasing to Him.

See the day of Atonement http://www.cofac.org/atonement.html Enter through the East Gate

עֲזָאזֵל goat of departure; the scapegoat:عزازيل , Azāzīl it is the name for a fallen malak.—Hebrew word עֵז (‘ez, “goat”; i.e., the word for “goats” in Lev_16:5) and אָזַל (‘azal, “to go away”), meaning “the goat that departs” scapegoat. entire removal, scapegoat refers to the goat used for sacrifice for the sins of the people meaning dubious from Arabic ‘azala (“to banish, remove”), meaning “entire removal”

scapegoat, a goat sent into the wilderness of the Day of Atonement, symbolically carrying away the sin of the community; some see this word as the name of the desert spirit (Azazel) to whom the goat is sent. sins are placed on the head of the “scapegoat,” which carries them away. The goal of the regular purification offerings was forgiveness

16:8 Aharon shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for Adonai and the other lot for Azazel. -Over the other the High Priest confessed the sins of the nation and it was then taken away into the desert hills outside Jerusalem where it plunged to its death. Tradition tells us that a red thread would be attached to its horns, half of which was removed before the animal was sent away. If the rite had been effective, the red thread would turn to white.

Yom Kippur in the Temple

Bigdei (בגדי) kadosh(קדשׁ) Set Apart garment – Leviticus – Vayikra 16:4

Mitznefet (מצנפת) Bad(בד) – Linen Turban worn the head, atone for haughtiness

Ketonet (כתנת) Bad (בד) Kodesh (קדשׁ) Set apart Linen Tunic ( Yochanan 19:23 Moshiach’s Linen tunic)

Avnet (אבנט) Bad(בד) Linen sash – belt worn over the heart, atones for sin of heart improper thoughtMikhnesei (מכנסי) Bad (בד) Linen breeches or undergarment pants sexual transgression

Passover in the Hebrew Bible


William Brown

by William Brown
published on 19 April 2019

Passover is a Jewish festival celebrated since at least the 5th century BCE, typically associated with the tradition of Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt. According to historical evidence and modern-day practice, the festival was originally celebrated on the 14th of Nissan. Directly after Passover is the Festival of Unleavened Bread, which most traditions describe as originating when the Israelites left Egypt and they did not have sufficient time to add yeast to the bread to allow it to rise. Although the Festivals of Passover and Unleavened Bread are closely associated, this article will focus primarily on Passover.

Passover Preparations in the "Sister Haggadah"

Origins & Practice

The historical origins of Passover are unclear. Though the Hebrew Bible describes the origins of Passover, these texts were likely composed after the 6th century BCE and include evidence for editorial additions and enrichments, namely expansions of older texts. Therefore, in order to understand the origins and practices associated with Passover, we must first examine the various texts in the Hebrew Bible which describe Passover. In doing so, three characteristics will emerge concerning the nature of Passover as represented in the Hebrew Bible:

  1. association with YahwehIsrael’s god
  2. shifts in the rituals associated with Passover
  3. different assumptions concerning whether or not people should perform Passover.

First, Passover is always associated with Yahweh, though not necessarily Yahweh’s leading the Israelites out of Egypt or passing over the doorposts of their households. In analyzing and proposing a history for the textual growth of Exodus 12:1-28, Professors Simeon Chavel and Mira Balberg suggest that the oldest layer of text in Exodus 12 does not feature “Israel’s liberation through Yahweh’s smiting of Egypt and does not explicitly advance it” (Chavel 2018, 299), essentially characterizing it as an ambiguous piece of folklore about a festival.

The Passover Papyrus from Elephantine

Subsequent editors, they argue, enriched this material by providing further ritual parameters and explanation of Yahweh’s actions: all Israelite families must participate in consuming a one-year-old male lamb; the lamb should be flame-broiled, entirely consumed by the morning after Passover, and eaten quickly; and Yahweh will skip over or shield the Israelite households who put the lamb’s blood on the doorpost from a destructive force killing their firstborn. Exodus 12:27, a response to the question concerning the purpose of celebrating Passover in future generations, best demonstrates the association between Passover and the killing of every firstborn in Egypt: “It is a Passover sacrifice for Yahweh, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when smiting Egypt; but he rescued our homes.” In other words, Passover was intended to be a performance and remembrance of Yahweh’s act of protecting the firstborns of Israel while in Egypt, itself a sign of Yahweh’s devotion to the Israelites.  THOUGH PASSOVER IS OFTEN PERCEIVED AS A UNIFIED, TRADITIONAL RITUAL, BIBLICAL PASSAGES DESCRIBE DIVERGENT RITUALS & REFLECT CHANGES IN THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT.

Second, the rituals concerning the actions on Passover develop throughout the Hebrew Bible. One example will suffice. In Exodus 12:9, Moses commands the Israelites to roast with fire the Passover lamb sacrifice, explicitly indicating they should not boil it with water. Yet, Deuteronomy 6:7 includes the command “you shall boil” the Passover sacrifice. Noticing the incongruity between Exodus 12:9 and Deuteronomy 16:7 in terms of proper ritual action, the author of Chronicles creatively combined the required ritual actions: “So, they boiled the Passover-lamb with fire according to the ordinance” (35:13). As subsequent generations received the Passover ritual traditions, they adjusted it in order to deal with contradictions in the traditional ritual texts.

Third, texts in the Hebrew Bible adjust the date of Passover for distinct reasons. Numbers 9:1-14, for example, offers provisions for Israelites who may have missed their opportunity to participate in Passover due to ritual uncleanliness (9:7, 10). Alternatively, Yahweh communicates through Moses that a second Passover celebration is possible. Instead of celebrating on the 14th day of the first month, they should celebrate on the 14th day of the second month. There remains an assumption, though, that all Israelites should celebrate Passover: “But the man who is pure, not on a journey, and neglects to perform the Passover, that person should be cut off from his people because he did not bring the offering of Yahweh at its appointed time” (Numbers 9:13).

By contrast, 2 Chronicles 30 describes Hezekiah’s attempt to cause all of Judah and Israel to perform Passover. The text describes that they celebrated it on the 14th of the second month due to the lack of priests available and people present (2 Chronicles 30:2-3). The purposes behind modifying the date of Passover from the first month to the second month are reflective of the cultural assumptions concerning the necessity of practicing Passover. Numbers 9 understands Passover to be an obligation incumbent on the Israelites; when 2 Chronicles 30 was composed, Passover was not perceived to be an obligation upon Israel and Judah.

Moses & the Parting of the Red Sea

Finally, Exodus 12 presents Passover as a celebration restricted to the households of Egypt (Exodus 12:1-13). By contrast, though using similar language for the ritual parameters, Deuteronomy 16 indicates that Passover should be celebrated not at the home: “and you shall sacrifice a Passover-offering to Yahweh, either a sheep or a cattle, at the place which Yahweh will select as a dwelling for his name” (Deuteronomy 16:2), specifically clarifying in Deuteronomy 16:5 that the sacrifice should not be offered locally. While Exodus 12 and Deuteronomy 16 are both concerned with the proper practice of Passover, they reflect different historical contexts. When Exodus 12 was composed, Passover was practiced in local towns and households; by contrast, when Deuteronomy 16 was composed, Passover was more regulated, imagined to be practiced in a central temple or sanctuary.

Though Passover is often perceived as a unified, traditional ritual within Judaism, biblical passages describe divergent rituals, reflect the growth of the Passover tradition, and illuminate changes in the historical context.

Reception of Passover

Early Judaism (c. 5th century BCE – 1st century CE)

Though a wide variety of early Jewish texts discuss Passover, two will be sufficient here. In a group of texts called the Elephantine Papyri, written by members of the 5th-century BCE Jewish colony of Elephantine, Egypt, Passover is mentioned multiple times. They indicate that Jews at Elephantine practiced some form of Passover, however, they do not “provide enough information to reconstruct the history of its observance” (Silverman 1973, 386). Unlike the biblical texts, the Elephantine Papyri can be more precisely dated, and as such, they demonstrate undoubtedly that Passover was a social practice among some Jews in the 5th century BCE.

Composed in the 2nd century BCE, the Book of Jubilees is a rewritten version of Genesis and Exodus. One goal of Jubilees is to clarify the Jewish calendar for celebrating festivals. The book of Genesis narrates a story about how Yahweh tested Abraham by commanding him to kill his only son, providing a ram at the last minute. Jubilees 19:18, though, additionally describes how Abraham celebrated a festival for Yahweh after Yahweh provided a ram in lieu of having to sacrifice Isaac, his firstborn. The festival is the Festival of Unleavened Bread, which is typically associated with Passover, occurring the seven days following Passover. In doing so, Jubilees establishes that the Festival of Unleavened Bread, and implicitly the Passover, was established prior to the Israelite exodus out of Egypt. 

Early Christianity (c. 1st century CE to 3rd century CE)

Passover plays a central role in the growth of Christianity as a distinct religious tradition from Judaism. By the 1st century CE, Josephus and the Gospels indicate that Passover drew large crowds of Jews to Jerusalem, the central cult site for the celebration of Passover. New Testament authors leverage Passover traditions in order to support their theological claims because, though the exact nature of Jesus is unclear from a historical perspective, he was a practicing Jew who lived in the 1st century CE.

The Last Supper

For example, in John 19:31-36, the author portrays Jesus as a Passover lamb, whose sacrifice would ultimately cause God to redeem humanity. Likewise, Paul explicitly describes Jesus as a Passover lamb as he extends the imagery of unleavened bread metaphorically into the realm of morality (1 Corinthians 5:6-8). Similar depictions of Jesus appear in 1 Peter 1:19 and Revelation 5:6. Broadly construed, the association of Jesus’ death with the Passover sacrifice “points to an understanding of the sacrifices of the Passover lamb as the remembrance of God’s past act of redemption that foreshadowed the sacrifice of the Lamb of God as God’s ultimate act of redemption” (Mangum 2016). Early Christians, who perceived themselves as practicing Jews, reframed the traditional narrative of Passover in order to highlight Jesus’ legitimacy as a redemptive figure for all of humanity.

Rabbinic Judaism (c. 1st century CE to 7th century CE).

Rabbinic Judaism developed, in part, as a response to the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. Without the temple, Jews could no longer offer sacrifices. It is from this context which Rabbinic Judaism emerged, providing ways to worship God and perform the various ritual festivals even though the Jewish temple was no longer standing. Rabbinic Judaism sought to establish “that the Passover celebration can and should continue even without the paschal lamb,” that is the Passover lamb (Bokser 1984, 48). Although ancient Israelite and Judean religion, along with Early Judaism, perceived the temple to be central to their worship, the destruction of the Jewish temple in 70 CE forced the Rabbis to reconsider how they would perform their ancient rituals. They did so through creative readings of their holy texts and by drawing on other Rabbinic traditions. 

Second Temple Model

For example, the Tosefta, a Rabbinic Jewish text of codified traditions and laws (3rd century CE), discusses the role of unleavened bread and bitter herbs, two foods mentioned in Exodus 12:8: “They shall eat the flesh that same night; they shall eat it roasted over the fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs” (Exodus 12:8; 1985 JPS Translation). Because this passage indicates that three things are eaten together, namely the Passover lamb, bitter herbs, and unleavened bread, the Rabbis equated bitter herbs and unleavened bread with the Passover sacrifice (Bokser 1984, 39). They essentially figured out a way to celebrate the Passover ritual without requiring a proper sacrifice at a temple.

Ancient Near Eastern Context

Passover as a festival is reflective of its broader ancient Near Eastern context in the use of blood at the entrance of the house and with regard to the firstborn. One of the fundamental aspects of Passover is putting the blood of the Passover lamb upon the gateposts of the household, that is the front entrance:

They shall take from the blood of the Passover lamb and put it upon the two doorposts and upon the upper-cross piece of the door upon the house within which they will eat it among them. (Exodus 12:7)

Applying the blood onto the door of the household served an apotropaic function, meaning that it warded off negative influences. In the context of Exodus 12, the “negative influence” is the destructive force which kills every firstborn.

Likewise, the Arslan Tash amulet, an amulet from the 7th century BCE discovered in Syria, includes a reference to “doorposts” in one of the incantations: “And let him not come down to the door-posts.” Here, the “doorposts” are the boundary into the home, the location where the amulet was possibly placed for preventing negative influences on the household. Though the Arslan Tash amulet and the Passover blood on the doors are distinct in terms of the broader social, religious, and cultural norms, the similarities between the two texts highlight a broader cultural concern in the ancient Near East with regard to negative forces entering a household through the doorposts.

Arslan Tash Amulet AT1

Additionally, a ritual called zukru, from a text discovered in Emar, Syria, shows remarkable similarities to Passover. First, both festivals began on the 14th day of the 1st month, lasting seven days. Second, the ritual for Passover and zukru both involve the smearing of blood on posts – the posts in Passover are to the house, the posts in zukru are at the city gates. Third, zukru is primarily a festival of “(the offering of) the (firstborn) male animals” to Dagan, a deity (Cohen 2015, 336). Likewise, Exodus 34:19 associates Passover with the offering of firstborn animals. The speaker, Yahweh, says: “All first-born of a womb are mine, as well as your male livestock, the first born of cattle and sheep.” Though these ritual actions were accomplished for different purposes, to different deities, and in distinct contexts, they demonstrate that Passover rituals are similar to broader ancient Near Eastern traditions.


Passover draws on a singular traditional narrative; however, texts speaking of Passover reflect different traditions, standards, rituals, and expectations depending on the historical contexts of their compositions. Such developments of Passover rituals appear to this day. In the 1980s CE, Dr. Susannah Heschel spoke at a Jewish community during Passover. One of the young girls was a lesbian. In order to express the marginalization of lesbians within Judaism, she placed leavened bread on her ritual plate. Essentially, the young girl equated the prohibition of leavened bread with the Jewish cultural convention prohibiting lesbians. Though inspired, Dr. Heschel realized that bread on the ritual plate made the plate impure, according to Jewish law. So, the next year, she placed an orange on the ritual plate, commenting: “I chose an orange because it suggests the fruitfulness for all Jews when lesbians and gay men are contributing and active members of Jewish life.” In many Jewish communities, the practice of placing an orange on the ritual plate is practiced to this day.

Thus, rituals surrounding Passover have historically developed on the basis of cultural concerns and historical context. So, Dr. Heschel did not simply add a new element to the ritual of Passover; rather, she continued the tradition of adapting, adjusting, and enriching Passover rituals. In doing so, she provided a voice and place for lesbians and gay men. One can only wonder: what other aspects of Passover will be enriched in order to provide a voice for marginalized people groups, new ideas, and cultural conventions in the 21st century CE?

EDITORIAL REVIEWThis Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.

Pesach – פסח – Readings

Pesach – פסח

images (3)

Pesach I – פסח יום א׳

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 12:21 – 12:51 & Numbers 28:16 – 28:25 

1: Exodus 12:21-24 (4 p’sukim)        
2: Exodus 12:25-28 (4 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 12:29-36 (8 p’sukim)
4: Exodus 12:37-42 (6 p’sukim)
5: Exodus 12:43-51 (9 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:16-25 (10 p’sukim)

Haftarah: Joshua 5:2 – 6:1



Pesach I (on Shabbat) – פסח יום א׳ (בשבת)

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 12:21 – 12:51 & Numbers 28:16 – 28:25

1: Exodus 12:21-24 (4 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 12:25-28 (4 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 12:29-32 (4 p’sukim)
4: Exodus 12:33-36 (4 p’sukim)
5: Exodus 12:37-42 (6 p’sukim)
6: Exodus 12:43-47 (5 p’sukim)
7: Exodus 12:48-51 (4 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:16-25 (10 p’sukim)

Haftarah: Joshua 5:2 – 6:1


Pesach II – פסח יום ב׳

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Leviticus 22:26 – 23:44 & Numbers 28:16 – 28:25

1: Leviticus 22:26-23:3 (11 p’sukim)
2: Leviticus 23:4-14 (11 p’sukim)
3: Leviticus 23:15-22 (8 p’sukim)
4: Leviticus 23:23-32 (10 p’sukim)
5: Leviticus 23:33-44 (12 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:16-25 (10 p’sukim)

Haftarah: II Kings 23:1 – 23:9; 23:21 – 23:25



Pesach Chol ha-Moed Day 1 – פסח יום ג׳ (חול המועד)

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 13:1 – 13:16

1: Exodus 13:1-4 (4 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 13:5-10 (6 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 13:11-16 (6 p’sukim)
4: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)


Pesach Chol ha-Moed Day 2 – פסח יום ד׳ (חול המועד)

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 22:24 – 23:19

1: Exodus 22:24-26 (3 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 22:27-23:5 (9 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 23:6-19 (14 p’sukim)
4: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)


Pesach Chol ha-Moed Day 3 – פסח יום ה׳ (חול המועד)Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.   

Torah Portion: Exodus 34:1 – 34:26

1: Exodus 34:1-10 (10 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 34:11-17 (7 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 34:18-26 (9 p’sukim)
4: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)



Pesach Chol ha-Moed Day 4 – פסח יום ו׳ (חול המועד)


Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Numbers 9:1 – 28:25

1: Numbers 9:1-5 (5 p’sukim)
2: Numbers 9:6-8 (3 p’sukim)
3: Numbers 9:9-14 (6 p’sukim)
4: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)


Pesach Shabbat Chol ha-Moed – פסח שבת חול המועד

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 33:12 – 34:26 & Numbers 28:19 – 28:25

1: Exodus 33:12-16 (5 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 33:17-19 (3 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 33:20-23 (4 p’sukim)
4: Exodus 34:1-3 (3 p’sukim)
5: Exodus 34:4-10 (7 p’sukim)
6: Exodus 34:11-17 (7 p’sukim)
7: Exodus 34:18-26 (9 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)

Haftarah: Ezekiel 37:1 – 37:14

images (4)

Pesach VII – פסח יום ז׳

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 13:17 – 15:26 & Numbers 28:19 – 28:25

1: Exodus 13:17-22 (6 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 14:1-8 (8 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 14:9-14 (6 p’sukim)
4: Exodus 14:15-25 (11 p’sukim)
5: Exodus 14:26-15:26 (32 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:19 25 (7 p’sukim)

Haftarah: II Samuel 22:1-51


Pesach VII (on Shabbat)

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Exodus 13:17 – 15:26 & Numbers 28:19 – 28:25

1: Exodus 13:17-19 (3 p’sukim)
2: Exodus 13:20-22 (3 p’sukim)
3: Exodus 14:1-4 (4 p’sukim)
4: Exodus 14:5-8 (4 p’sukim)
5: Exodus 14:9-14 (6 p’sukim)
6: Exodus 14:15-25 (11 p’sukim)
7: Exodus 14:26-15:26 (32 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)

Haftarah: II Samuel 22:1-51


Pesach VIII – פסח יום ח׳

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Deuteronomy 15:19 – 16:17 & Numbers 28:19 – 28:25

1: Deuteronomy 15:19-23 (5 p’sukim)
2: Deuteronomy 16:1-3 (3 p’sukim)
3: Deuteronomy 16:4-8 (5 p’sukim)
4: Deuteronomy 16:9-12 (4 p’sukim)
5: Deuteronomy 16:13-17 (5 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)

Haftarah: Isaiah 10:32 – 12:6


Pesach VIII (on Shabbat)

Passover, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Torah Portion: Deuteronomy 14:22 – 16:17 & Numbers 28:19 – 28:25

1: Deuteronomy 14:22-29 (8 p’sukim)
2: Deuteronomy 15:1-18 (18 p’sukim)
3: Deuteronomy 15:19-23 (5 p’sukim)
4: Deuteronomy 16:1-3 (3 p’sukim)
5: Deuteronomy 16:4-8 (5 p’sukim)
6: Deuteronomy 16:9-12 (4 p’sukim)
7: Deuteronomy 16:13-17 (5 p’sukim)
maf: Numbers 28:19-25 (7 p’sukim)

Pesach / פסח

Passover sacrifice

Practice of Passover sacrifice in Jerusalem
The Passover sacrifice (Hebrew: Korban Pesakh קרבן פסח‎), also known as the “sacrifice of Passover”, the Paschal Lamb, or the Passover Lamb, is the sacrifice that the Torah mandates Jews and Samaritans to ritually slaughter on the eve of Passover, and eat on the first night of the holiday with bitter herbs and matzo. According to the Torah, it was first offered on the night of the Israelites’ Exodus from Egypt. Although practiced by Jews in ancient times, the ritual is today only practiced by Samaritans at Mount Gerizim.[1]


1Torah (Hebrew Bible)
2Rabbinical interpretation
2.1The sacrificial animal
2.2Timing: Passover Eve on the Sabbath
2.3The three groups of lay people
2.4The Home Ceremony
3Modern attempts to revive the sacrifice

See also
Torah (Hebrew Bible)

The blood of this sacrifice sprinkled on the door-posts of the Israelites was to be a sign to God, when passing through the land to slay the first-born of the Egyptians that night, that he should pass by the houses of the Israelites (Exodus 12:1-28) This is called in the Mishnah the “Passover of Egypt” (Pesaḥ Miẓrayim in M.Pesach ix. 5). It was ordained, furthermore (Exodus 12:24-27), that this observance should be repeated annually for all time once the Israelites entered into their promised land. Exodus 12:25 “It will come to pass when you come to the land which the Lord will give you, just as He promised, that you shall keep this service (NKJV). This so-called “Pesaḥ Dorot,” the Passover of succeeding generations (Mishnah Pesach l.c.), differs in many respects from the Passover of Egypt (Pesaḥ Miẓrayim). In the pre-exilic period, however, Passover was rarely sacrificed in accordance with the legal prescriptions (comp. II Chron. xxxv. 18).

The Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, on the first new moon of the second year following the exodus from the land of Egypt, saying: Let the Israelite people offer the Passover sacrifice at its set time: you shall offer it on the fourteenth day of this month, at twilight, at its set time; you shall offer it in accordance with all its rites and rules— Num. 9:1–3, JPS translation
Rabbinical interpretation

According to Rashi, on Numbers 9:1, only once during their forty years of wandering in the wilderness, one year after the Exodus, was the sacrifice offered. For the next 39 years, there was no offering, according to Rashi, as God stipulated that it could only be offered after the Children of Israel had entered the Land of Israel. In fact, the bringing of the Pesach sacrifice resumed only after the Israelites had taken possession of the land, and then the sacrifice was made annually until during the times when Solomon’s Temple and the Second Temple stood and functioned. During this time there was a definite ritual for the offering, in addition to the regulations prescribed by the Law. The following is a brief summary of the principal ordinances and of the ritual accompanying the sacrifice:

The sacrificial animal

The sacrificial animal, which was either a lamb or goat, was necessarily a male, one-year-old, and without blemish. Each family or society offered one animal together, which did not require the “semikah” (laying on of hands), although it was obligatory to determine who were to take part in the sacrifice that the killing might take place with the proper intentions. Only those who were circumcised and clean before the Law might participate, and they were forbidden to have leavened food in their possession during the act of killing the paschal lamb. The animal was slain on the eve of the Passover, on the afternoon of the 14th of Nisan,[2] after the Tamid sacrifice had been killed, i.e., at three o’clock, or, in case the eve of the Passover fell on Friday, at two.[3]

The sacrificial service took place in the courtyard of the Temple at Jerusalem. Strictly speaking, slaughtering could be performed by a layman, but in practice was performed by priests. The blood had to be collected by a priest, and rows of priests with gold or silver cups in their hands stood in line from the Temple court to the altar, where the blood was sprinkled. These cups were rounded on the bottom so that they could not be set down; for, in that case, the blood might coagulate. The priest who caught the blood as it dropped from the animal then handed the cup to the priest next to him, receiving from him an empty one, and the full cup was passed along the line until it reached the last priest, who sprinkled its contents on the altar. The lamb was then hung upon special hooks or sticks and skinned; but if the eve of the Passover fell on a Sabbath, the skin was removed down to the breast only. The abdomen was then cut open, and the fatty portions intended for the altar were taken out, placed in a vessel, salted, and offered by the priest on the altar, while the remaining entrails likewise were taken out and cleansed.[3]

While the required quorum for most activities requiring a quorum is usually ten, the Korban Pesach must be offered before a quorum of 30. (It must be performed in front of kahal adat Yisrael, the assembly of the congregation of Israel. Ten are needed for the assembly, ten for the congregation, and ten for Israel.) According to some Talmudic authorities, such as Rav Kahana IV, women counted in the minyan for offering the Passover sacrifice (B.Pesachim 79b).

Timing: Passover Eve on the Sabbath

Even if the eve of the Passover fell on a Sabbath, the paschal lamb was killed in the manner described above, the blood was sprinkled on the altar, the entrails removed and cleansed, and the fat offered on the altar; for these four ceremonies in the case of the paschal lamb, and these alone, were exempt from the prohibition against working on the Sabbath. This regulation, that the Sabbath yielded the precedence to the Passover, was not definitely determined until the time of Hillel, who established it as a law and was in return elevated to the dignity of nasi by Judah ben Bathyra.(B.Pesachim 68a).

The three groups of lay people

The people taking part in the sacrifice were divided into three groups. The first of these filled the court of the Temple so that the gates had to be closed, and while they were killing and offering their paschal lambs the Levites on the platform (dukan) recited the “Hallel” (Psalms 113-118), accompanied by instruments of brass. If the Levites finished their recitation before the priests had completed the sacrifice, they repeated the “Hallel,” although it never happened that they had to repeat it twice. As soon as the first group had offered their sacrifice, the gates were opened to let them out, and their places were taken by the second and third groups successively.

All three groups offered their sacrifice in the manner described, while the “Hallel” was recited; but the third group was so small that it had always finished before the Levites reached Psalm 116. It was called the “group of the lazy” because it came last. Even if the majority of the people were ritually unclean on the eve of the Passover, the sacrifice was offered on the 14th of Nisan. Other sacrifices, on the contrary, called “ḥagigah,” which were offered together with the paschal lamb, were omitted if the eve of the Passover fell on a Sabbath, or if the sacrifice was offered in a state of uncleanness, or if the number of participants was so small that they could not consume all the meat. When the sacrifice was completed and the animal was ready for roasting, each one present carried his lamb home, except when the eve of the Passover fell on a Sabbath, in which case it might not be taken away.[3]

The Home Ceremony

If the 14th of Nissan fell on the Sabbath, the first group stationed itself on the mount of the Temple in Jerusalem, the second group in the “ḥel,” the space between the Temple wall and the Temple hall, while the third group remained in the Temple court, thus awaiting the evening, when they took their lambs home and roasted them on a spit of pomegranate-wood, On all other days, they could do it before nightfall (and if the 15th of Nissan fell to be on the Sabbath they would have to). No bones might be broken either during the cooking or during the eating. The lamb was set on the table at the evening banquet (see Passover Seder) and was eaten by the assembled company after all had satisfied their appetites with the ḥagigah or other food. The sacrifice had to be consumed entirely that same evening, nothing being allowed to remain overnight. While eating it, the entire company of those who partook was obliged to remain together, and every participant had to take a piece of the lamb at least as large as an olive. Women and girls also might take part in the banquet and eat of the sacrifice. The following benediction was pronounced before eating the lamb: “Blessed be Thou, the Eternal, our God, the King of the world, who hast sanctified us by Thy commands, and hast ordained that we should eat the Passover.” The “Hallel” was recited during the meal, and when the lamb had been eaten the meaning of the custom was explained, and the story of the Exodus was told (see Passover Seder).[3]

The paschal sacrifice belongs to the shelamim, thus forming one of the sacrifices in which the meal is the principal part and indicates the community between God and man. It is really a house or family sacrifice, and each household is regarded as constituting a small community in itself, not only because the lamb is eaten at home, but also because every member of the family is obliged to partake of the meal, on pain of ritual excommunication, although each man must be circumcised and all must be ritually clean. The fact that the paschal lamb might be killed only at the central sanctuary of Jerusalem, on the other hand, implies that each household was but a member of the larger community; this is indicated also by the national character of the sacrifice, which kept alive in the memory of the nation the preservation and liberation of the entire people.[3]

Modern attempts to revive the sacrifice

In 2007, a group of rabbis led by Adin Steinsalz and supported by the Temple Mount Faithful and the New Sanhedrin Council identified a Kohen who was a butcher, made plans for conducting a Passover sacrifice on the Temple Mount and petitioned the Israeli High Court of Justice for permission. The Court sided with the government and rejected the request, holding that such an event would inflame religious tensions and would threaten security. The incident was a successor to a series of earlier attempts by various groups to perform such a sacrifice, either openly or by subterfuge.[4][5]

In 2008, animal rights group Tnoo Lachayot Lichyot (“Let the Animals Live”) sued the Temple Institute, claiming its conduct of a practice Passover sacrifice demonstration would constitute animal cruelty. An Israeli court rejected the claim.[6]

In 2016, Jewish activists pushing for a third temple in Jerusalem attempted to ascend the Temple Mount carrying baby goats intended to be used as Passover sacrifices on Friday afternoon, as they do every year. Jerusalem police detained ten suspects in the Old City for interrogation and seized four sacrificial goat kids. Among those arrested were Kach activist Noam Federman, who attempts make the sacrifice every year, and Rafael Morris, an activist in the Temple Mount Faithful movement.
See also


This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). “Passover Sacrifice”. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

Members of the Samaritan sect in Israel skewer sheep for the traditional Passover ceremony in West Bank city of Nablus
Leviticus 23
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach (1901–1906). “Passover Sacrifice”. In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
Shanghai, Nadav; Barkat, Amiram (2007-02-04), “Court prevents groups from sacrificing live animals at Temple Mount”, Haaretz, retrieved 2008-10-07
“Rabbis aim to renew animal sacrifices”, Jerusalem Post, 2007-02-28, retrieved 2008-10-07
Judge Rules Paschal Sacrifice Practice ‘Proper,’ Appeal Filed, Israeli National News, 2008-04-08, retrieved 2008-10-07
Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Passover_sacrifice&oldid=774855179”
Jewish animal sacrifice

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How to Reach Your Personal Exodus

How to Reach Your Personal Exodus 
by Rabbi Dov Heller, M.A.
Liberate your will by embracing the power of small.

Passover is the holiday of freedom, the opportunity to expand and grow beyond one’s perceived limitations. In Hebrew, the word Egypt means “narrow.” Egypt was a place that limited human potential and enslaved the will. Freedom from one’s personal Egypt is the experience of expanding and moving beyond one’s personal limitations by harnessing and liberating one’s will.

One’s personal Egypt is the pain of wanting to improve oneself in a specific way but feeling powerless to bring about that change. In place of growth, one feels stuck and hopeless.

Gary has struggled with loving people and feeling connected to them for as long as he can remember. He has tried so many techniques hoping one of them would result in the breakthrough he longs for. He has a pattern of learning about some tool for loving people, getting excited about it, and after two weeks or so, quitting, as he realizes it’s not working for him. Recently he read about a technique called the “love game” – the suggestion is to study someone closely and make a list of five virtues that person possesses. Love being defined in this context as the pleasure we get when we identify someone with their virtues and excuse their faults. Gary once again felt a rush of excitement because the idea made so much sense. Unfortunately, after two weeks, he ran out of gas again. Feeling like a loser, he felt resigned to living a life of disconnection.

I think we all can identify with Gary’s frustration. There are aspects about who we are that we long to change so badly but have given-up, feeling resigned to living with our limitations.

Our sages taught, “Nothing can stand in the way of one’s will.” We have the power to improve ourselves in any way we truly want to. Rabbi Eliyahu Dessler taught that the secret of liberating one’s will is to identify where one’s free-will point lies, or what I call “our personal points of real possibility.” One’s true free-will point is that small step that one can make consistently, without herculean effort.

There always exists some meaningful change that a person can make, some step towards becoming better. That change may be so small that one may be inclined to discard it, thinking it’s not much of an accomplishment. That’s a big mistake. Making any real change, no matter how small, is significant and deeply fulfilling. This is the “power of small.” And it is the key power to liberating oneself from imprisoned will and attaining authentic growth and transformation.

A common reason why people fail in improving themselves is that they consistently set the bar too high with goals that are too difficult to reach. The Talmud tells us, “If you try to grab too much you’ll end up with nothing.” Realistic growth that takes an honest look at one’s free-will point is the best way to avoid what I call self-improvement burn-out. Don’t be seduced by the dramatic accomplishments encouraged by life coaches and mentors. For many people, this is a formula for chronic frustration and depression.

Know yourself and accept your limitations. Don’t compare yourself with others; competing with others distracts us from being honest with ourselves. Be secure with who you are – an imperfect person striving to grow. Avoid grandiosity and perfectionism. Celebrate instead every tiny step of growth.

Gary’s real problem was that he was always setting the bar beyond his free-will point. The tools he had tried were out of his range of real possibilities for him. If Gary were able to be honest with himself, he would discover that his free-will point would be a very small change. Fortunately, with some guidance, Gary discovered where his free-will point was. Once a day he would greet one person with a sincere and genuine smile. When he received a nice smile in return, he felt connected and more positive about that person.

After a month Gary was astonished by the change in the way he felt about himself and others. He was feeling empowered and convinced that he could maintain this change without pushing himself overly hard. Once Gary felt he had mastered this change, he felt ready to raise the bar a notch. He even felt that he could begin thinking about looking for virtues in others as his next step in loving people.

This approach to growth is truly empowering. The power of small is ultimately about living in reality and striving for genuine transformation. Every exodus from our personal Egypt begins with small steps that are located at our free-will points. With the power of small, we can understand why our Sages say, “Nothing can stand in the way of will.”

This article can also be read at: https://www.aish.com/h/pes/t/How-to-Reach-Your-Personal-Exodus.html

Lesson 28

Parashah 28: Metzora (Person afflicted with Tzra’at) 14:1-15:33
[In regular year read with Parashah 27, in leap years read separately]

14:1(i) And Adonai spoke to Moshe, saying:

14:2 This shall be the Torat ha metzora in the day of his Tohorah (cleansing):

The First stage of Metzora’s purification (2-8)

He shall be brought to the Kohen:

14:3 And the Kohen shall go forth out of the camp; and the Kohen shall look, and, Hinnei, [if] the nega of tzara’at be healed in the tzara;

From Arrogance to humility

two birds alive, cedar wood, scarlet thread, and hyssop

14:4 Then shall the Kohen command to take for him that is to be Taher (cleansed) two birds alive [and] Tahor (clean), and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop:

14:5 And the Kohen shall command that one of the birds be killed in an earthen vessel over mayim chayyim (running water):

14:6 As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird [that was] killed (shachat) over the mayim chayyim (running water):

14:7 And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be Taher (cleansed) from the tzara’at seven times, and shall pronounce him Tahor (clean), and shall let the living bird loose into the open field.

14:8 And he that is to be Tahor (cleansed) shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and wash himself in water, that he may be Tahor (clean): and after that he shall come into the camp, and shall tarry abroad out of his tent shivat yamim.

The Second stage-Shaving

14:9 But it shall be on the yom hashevi’i, that he shall shave all his hair off his head and his beard and his eyebrows, erev all his hair he shall shave off: and he shall wash his clothes, also he shall wash his flesh in water, and he shall be Tahor (clean).

The Final stage of Purification – offering

14:10 And on the eighth day he shall take two he lambs Tamiym, and one ewe lamb of the first year Tamiym, and three tenth deals of fine flour [for] a minchah, mingled with oil, and one log of oil.

14:11 And the Kohen that makes [him] Tahor (clean) shall present the man that is to be made Tahor (clean), and those things, before Adonai (יהוה), [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation:

14:12 And the Kohen shall take one he lamb, and offer him for a asham (trespass offering), and the log of oil, and wave them [for] a tenufah (wave offering) before Adonai (יהוה):

14:13 (LY:ii)

And he shall slay the lamb in the place where he shall kill the chatat (sin offering), and the Olah, in the kadosh place: for as the chatat (sin offering), [is] the Kohen’s, [so is] the asham (trespass offering): it [is] most kadosh:

14:14 And the Kohen shall take [some] of the blood of the asham (trespass offering), and the Kohen shall put [it] upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be Tahor (cleansed), and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot:

14:15 And the Kohen shall take [some] of the log of oil, and pour [it] into the palm of his own left hand:

14:16 And the Kohen shall dip his right finger in the oil that [is] in his left hand, and shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before Adonai (יהוה):

14:17 And of the rest of the oil that [is] in his hand shall the Kohen put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be Taher (cleansed), and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the asham (trespass offering):

14:18 And the remnant of the oil that [is] in the Kohen’s hand he shall pour upon the head of him that is to be Taher (cleansed): and the Kohen shall make an atonement for him before Adonai (יהוה).

14:19 And the Kohen shall offer the chatat (sin offering),, and make an atonement for him that is to be Taher (cleansed) from his Tum’ah; and afterward he shall kill the Olah:

14:20 And the Kohen shall offer the Olah and the minchah upon the altar: and the Kohen shall make an atonement for him, and he shall be Tahor (clean).

14:21 (RY:v,LY:iii)

And if he [be] poor, and cannot get so much; then he shall take one lamb [for] a asham (trespass offering) to be waved, to make an atonement for him, and one tenth deal of fine flour mingled with oil for a minchah, and a log of oil;

14:22 And two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a chatat (sin offering),, and the other a Olah.

14:23 And he shall bring them on the eighth day for his Tohorah (cleansing) to the Kohen, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before Adonai (יהוה).

14:24 And the Kohen shall take the lamb of the asham (trespass offering), and the log of oil, and the Kohen shall wave them [for] a tenufah (wave offering) before Adonai (יהוה):

14:25 And he shall kill the lamb of the asham (trespass offering), and the Kohen shall take [some] of the blood of the asham (trespass offering), and put [it] upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be Taher (cleansed), and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot:

14:26 And the Kohen shall pour of the oil into the palm of his own left hand:

14:27 And the Kohen shall sprinkle with his right finger [some] of the oil that [is] in his left hand seven times before Adonai (יהוה):

14:28 And the Kohen shall put of the oil that [is] in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be Taher (cleansed), and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the place of the blood of the asham (trespass offering):

14:29 And the rest of the oil that [is] in the Kohen’s hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be Taher (cleansed), to make an atonement for him before Adonai (יהוה).

14:30 And he shall offer the one of the turtledoves, or of the young pigeons, such as he can get;

14:31 [erev] such as he is able to get, the one [for] a chatat (sin offering),, and the other [for] a Olah, with the minchah: and the Kohen shall make an atonement for him that is to be Taher (cleansed) before Adonai (יהוה).

14:32 This [is] the Torah [of him] in whom [is] the nega of tzara’at, whose hand is not able to get [that which pertains] to his Tohorah (cleansing).

14:33 (RY:vi, LY:iv)

And Adonai (יהוה) spoke to Moshe and to Aharon, saying,

14:34 When you be come into the eretz of Kenaan, which I give to you for a possession, and I put the nega of tzara’at in a beit of the eretz of your possession;

14:35 And he that owns ha beit shall come and tell the Kohen, saying, It seems to me [there is] as it were a nega in ha beit:

14:36 Then the Kohen shall command that they empty ha beit, before the Kohen go [into it] to see the nega, that all that [is] in ha beit be not made tamei: and afterward the Kohen shall go in to see ha beit:

14:37 And he shall look on the nega, and, Hinnei, [if] the nega [be] in the walls of ha beit with hollow strakes, greenish or reddish, which in sight [are] lower than the wall;

14:38 Then the Kohen shall go out of ha beit to the door of ha beit, and shut up ha beit shivat yamim:

14:39 And the Kohen shall come again the yom hashevi’i, and shall look: and, Hinnei, [if] the nega be spread in the walls of ha beit;

14:40 Then the Kohen shall command that they take away the stones in which the nega [is], and they shall cast them into an tamei place without the city:

14:41 And he shall cause ha beit to be scraped within round about, and they shall pour out the dust that they scrape off without the city into an tamei place:

14:42 And they shall take other stones, and put [them] in the place of those stones; and he shall take other morter, and shall plaister ha beit.

14:43 And if the nega come again, and break out in ha beit, after that he has taken away the stones, and after he has scraped ha beit, and after it is plaistered;

14:44 Then the Kohen shall come and look, and, Hinnei, [if] the nega be spread in ha beit, it [is] a fretting tzara’at in ha beit: it [is] tamei.

14:45 And he shall break down ha beit, the stones of it, and the timber thereof, and all the morter of ha beit; and he shall carry [them] forth out of the city into an tamei place.

14:46 Moreover he that goes into ha beit all the while that it is shut up shall be tamei until the erev.

14:47 And he that lies in ha beit shall wash his clothes; and he that eats in ha beit shall wash his clothes.

14:48 And if the Kohen shall come in, and look [upon it], and, Hinnei, the nega has not spread in ha beit, after ha beit was plaistered: then the Kohen shall pronounce ha beit Tahor (clean), because the nega is healed.

14:49 And he shall take to purify’ ha beit two birds, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop:

14:50 And he shall kill the one of the birds in an earthen vessel over mayim chayyim (running water):

14:51 And he shall take the cedar wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the mayim chayyim (running water), and sprinkle ha beit seven times:

14:52 And he shall purify ha beit with the blood of the bird, and with the mayim chayyim (running water), and with the living bird, and with the cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with the scarlet:

14:53 But he shall let go the living bird out of the city into the open fields, and make an atonement for ha beit: and it shall be Tahor (clean).

14:54 (LY:v)

This [is] the Torah for all manner of nega of tzara’at, and scall,

14:55 And for the tzara’at of a garment, and of a beit,

14:56 And for a rising, and for a scab, and for a bright spot:

14:57 To teach when [it is] tamei, and when [it is] Tahor (clean): this [is] the Torah of tzara’at.

shivat yamim – seven days

The Eight day: Type of offering Sin offering and burnt offering. Eight is a symbol of the glory of Adonai (יהוה), it is the symbol of the New beginning, It is a symbol of the perfect Kingdom (after the 7th millennium 8th millennium) Eight is a symbol of  Moshiach. Tumah is a person dying off the living dead

Lesson 27

12:1(i)  And Adonai spoke to Moshe, saying:

12:2דבר אל־בני ישׂראל לאמר אשׁה כי תזריע וילדה זכר וטמאה שׁבעת ימים כימי נדת דותה תטמא׃

Daber el-benei Yisrael lemor isha ki tazria veyaldah zakhar vetamah shivat yamim kimei nidat devotah titma:

Speak to children of Yisrael, instructing: “If a woman conceives and bears a male child, then she will be unclean for seven days, as in the days of her niddah she will be unclean.

12:3וביום השׁמיני ימול בשׂר ערלתו׃

Uvayom hashemini yimol besar arlato

And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.

12:4 [n129K2]

ושׁלשׁים יום ושׁלשׁת ימים תשׁב בדמי טהרה בכל־קדשׁ לא־תגע ואל־המקדשׁ לא תבא עד־מלאת ימי טהרה׃

Usheloshim yom usheloshet yamim teshev bidmei tahorah bekhol-kodesh lo-tiga veel-hamikdash lo tavo ad-melot yemei tahorah:

‘Then she shall remain in the blood of her purification for thirty-three days; she shall not touch any consecrated thing, nor enter the sanctuary until the days of her purification are completed.

12:5 ואם־נקבה תלד וטמאה שׁבעים כנדתה ושׁשׁים יום ושׁשׁת ימים תשׁב על־דמי טהרה׃

Veim-nekevah teled vetamah shevuayim kenidatah veshishim yom vesheshet yamim teshev al-demei tahorah:

But if she bears a female child, then she will be unclean for two weeks, as in her niddah, and she is to wait in the blood of purification for sixty-six days.

12:6ובמלאת ימי טהרה לבן או לבת תביא כבשׂ בן־שׁנתו לעלה ובן־יונה או־תר לחטאת אל־פתח אהל־מועד אל־הכהן׃

uvimlot yemei tahorah leven o levat tavi keves ben-shenato leolah uven-yonah o-tor lechatat el-pe takh o hel-mo ed el-ha ko hen:

‘When the days of her purification are completed, for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring to the Kohen at the doorway of the tent of meeting a one year old lamb for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a turtledove for a sin offering.

12:7והקריבו לפני יהוה וכפר עליה וטהרה ממקר דמיה זאת תורת הילדת לזכר או לנקבה׃

Vehikrivo lifnei ADONAI vekhiper aleiha vetaharah mimkor dameiha zot torat hayoledet lazakhar o lankevah:

He is to present it before Adonai (יהוה) and make atonement  for her. Then she will be cleansed from the discharge of her blood. This is the Torat for her who gives birth, whether to a male or a female child.

Luk 2:22  And when the days of their purification were fulfilled, according to the Torah of Moses, they brought Him to Jerusalem to present to Adonai.

12:8ואם־לא תמצא ידה די שׂה ולקחה שׁתי־תרים או שׁני בני יונה אחד לעלה ואחד לחטאת וכפר עליה הכהן וטהרה׃

veim-lo timtsa yada dei seh velakcha shetei-torim o shenei benei yonah echad leolah veechad lechatat vekhiper aleiha hakohen vetaherah:

And if she cannot afford a lamb, then she shall take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, one for a burnt offering  and the other for a sin offering. And Kohen shall make atonement for her, and she shall be clean.'”

Loukas 2:21  When eight days had passed for HIS brit-milah, He was named Yeshua, the NAME given by the messenger before HE was conceived in the womb.

Loukas 2:22  And when the days of their purification were fulfilled, according to the Torah of Moshe, they brought Him to Yerushalayim to present to Adonai.

Loukas 2:23  As it is written in the Torah of Adonai, “Every firstborn male that opens the womb shall be called Set Apart to Adonai.”

Shabbat HaChodesh / שבת החדש Shabbat HaChodesh (“Sabbath [of the] month” שבת החודש) precedes the first of the Hebrew month of Nisan during which Passover is celebrated. Shemot 12:1-20 and the laws of Passover. On the first day of Nisan, Elohim presented the first commandment of how to “sanctify the new moon” (kiddush hachodesh) for the onset of Rosh Chodesh and thus Nisan becomes the first month of the Jewish year (counting by months.).

Torah portion : Tazria

Tazria, Thazria, Thazri’a, Sazria, or Ki Tazria’ root word zerah, zarah (תזריע “she conceives,” the 13th word, and the first distinctive word, in the parshah) when a woman at childbirth bore Tzara’ats is a spiritual malady with a physical manifestation. (example shown Miriam in Badmidbar 12) to sow seed, plant seed;  to be sown upon;  to be sown;  to be sown, be planted, to have children, have descendants;  to yield seed, to become pregnant; from the base meaning of scattering seed onto the ground comes the fig. extension “to have children”

Male – Boy – she was to be Tamei 7 days and then remain in a state of blood purification for 33 days read example Luke 2:22-24)

Female – girl, she was to be Tamei 14 days and then remain in a state of blood purification for 66 days. (vs 1–5.) Upon completing her niddah of purification, she was to bring

a lamb for a burnt offering and

a pigeon or a turtle dove for a sin offering, and

Kohen was to offer them as sacrifices to make expiation on her behalf. (vs 6–7.) If she could not afford a sheep, she was to take two turtle doves or two pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering. (vs 8.) The Talmud explains that when a woman is in the pain of childbirth, she might inadvertently curse her husband or take a vow never to let him touch her again, and because of that, she must bring a sin offering to exonerate herself from her rash vow or her resentful thoughts. Women who have gone through the pain of childbirth may find this explanation amusing and even concur with some of the sentiments, but this is hardly a credible interpretation.

Why is child birth of women consider tumah?

Why require a women to offer Olah and chatat ?:

Tumah is  a spiritual impurity, involves death and decay, also translate as contamination, defilement, pollution,

These offerings were required for a remembrance that sin enters the lives of everyone. From the beginning children are born into a world that is decaying as a result of sin.

The original state:

However, when HaShem commanded Adam and Hava to be fruitful and multiply, the world was not in a state of decay.

When Man sin…

After Adam and Hava ate of the fruit of knowledge of good and evil, the decay started. As a result. HaShem changed childbirth to reflect the decay that Adam and Hava’s transgression had caused. Even though Adam and Hava were commanded to be fruitful and multiply, they and their children suffered the consequences of their actions. Childbirth would no longer be the peaceful experience HaShem originally wanted. B’resheet 1:28 in the Complete Jewish Bible states “To the woman he said, “I will greatly increase your pain in childbirth. You will bring forth children in pain.”” After the fall, pain and struggle became a normal part of childbirth. Each time a child is born we are reminded of the transgression of Adam and Hava. To rectify the situation HaShem initiated an offering ritual that would remind parents that HaShem was redeeming the world from the decay that was present. In other words, the pain and travail of childbirth reminds us of Adam’s sin, while the offerings remind us that HaShem’s salvation delivers us from our sins and the sins of our fathers.

niddah: someone who is separated or menstruant – an object lesson to remind us that sinn separates us from Hashem.

an account of Yeshua coming into contact with a woman who had suffered from a discharge of blood for twelve years (Mt. 9:20–22; Mk. 5:25–34; Lk. 8:43–48). Whatever the cause of her loss of blood, the Levitical restrictions (esp. 15:19–33) rendered her ritually unclean, and likewise anyone and anything she might touch, thus making her an exile among her own people. The moment the woman touched the cloak of Yeshua, however, she was healed by the power of Elohim, and her defilement removed. The Brit Hadashah is silent about whether the woman’s actions rendered Yeshua ceremonially unclean and about her obligation to bring the prescribed offerings following cessation of her discharge (cf. Lev. 15:28–30). —Marvin Wilson

According to the  Rabbis there was believe that  view that when the Moshiach comes the Tumah  or leprosy will flee from Him.

Living Hope, covenant promise, New Begining

“in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.” Hoping for a future redemption requires faith. Circumcision is a perfect example of how faith in HaShem’s future redemption helps mankind to continue living by His commandments.

Circumcision on the eighth day is a reminder of the redemptive promises HaShem gave to Avraham. B’resheet 17:12 states “he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed.” The circumcision of a male child on the eighth day was a sign that the covenant between HaShem and Avraham was still in effect.

As a result, every time a male child became circumcised HaShem was declaring that He would deliver Avraham’s descendants and give them a land to possess. B’resheet 17:8 states “I will give to thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.” HaShem’s promise to Avraham and his descendants guaranteed that His salvation resided in Yisrael.

By Rabbi Yaakov ben Yosef – ABOUT-Torah.org

metzora: one with a skin disease; a contraction of the Hebrew word motzi and ra meaning one who speaks slander