Qaddish

Kaddish
The Kaddish or Qaddish (Aramaic: קדיש ,qaddiš “holy”; alternative spelling: Ḳaddish) is a hymn of praises to God found in Jewish prayer services. The central theme of the Kaddish is the magnification and sanctification of God’s name. In the liturgy, different
versions of the Kaddish are used functionally as separators between sections of the service.
The term “Kaddish” is often used to refer specifically to “The Mourner’s Kaddish”, said as part of the mourning rituals in Judaism in
all prayer services, as well as at funerals (other than at the gravesite, see Qaddish aḥar Haqqəvurah “Qaddish after Burial”) and
memorials, and for 11 months after the death of a close relative. When mention is made of “saying Kaddish”, this unambiguously refers to the rituals of mourning. Mourners say Kaddish to show that despite the loss they still praise God.
The opening words of this prayer are inspired by Ezekiel 38:23 (http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1238.htm#23), a vision of God
becoming great in the eyes of all the nations. The central line of the Kaddish in Jewish tradition is the congregation’s response: הא ֵיְ
ְל ָע ַלם ּו ְל ָע ְל ֵמי ָע ְל ַמ ּיָא
ְרךַב ָמ ְבא ָּר ַה ּמ ֵש) ׁ ְYǝhē šmēh rabbā mǝvārakh lǝʿālam u-lʿalmē ʿālmayyā, “May His great name be blessed for
ever, and to all eternity”), a public declaration of God’s greatness and eternality.
[1] This response is an Aramaic translation of the
Hebrew “ועד לעולם מלכותו כבוד שם ברוך) “Blessed be His name, whose glorious kingdom is forever), which is to be found in
the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (עלמין לעלמי יקריה שום בריך ,Genesis 49:2 and Deuteronomy 6:4), and is similar to the wording of
Daniel 2:20 (http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt3402.htm#20).
The Mourners, Rabbis, and Complete Kaddish end with a supplication for peace (“Oseh Shalom…”), which is in Hebrew, and is
somewhat similar to the Tanakh Job 25:2 (http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2725.htm#2).
Along with the Shema Yisrael and Amidah, the Kaddish is one of the most important and central elements in the Jewish liturgy.
Kaddish cannot be recited alone. Along with some prayers, it can only be recited with a minyan of ten Jews.
History and background
Variant forms

Text of the Kaddish
Text of the burial kaddish
Recent additions to Oseh Shalom
Notes
Customs
Minyan requirement
Mourner’s Kaddish
Use of the Kaddish in the arts
In literature and publications
In music
Online
Onscreen, in film
Onscreen, in television
Onstage, in dance, theater, and musicals
See also
References
Contents
2/16/2019 Kaddish – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaddish 2/12
External links
“The Kaddish is in origin a closing doxology to an Aggadic discourse.”
[2] Most of it is written in Aramaic, which, at the time of its
the original composition was the lingua franca of the Jewish people. It is not composed in the vernacular Aramaic, however, but rather in
a “literary, jargon Aramaic” that was used in the academies, and is identical to the dialect of the Targum.
[2]
Professor Yoel Elitzur, however, argues that the Kaddish was originally written in Hebrew, and later translated to Aramaic to be better
understood by the masses. He notes that quotations from the Kaddish in the Talmud and Sifrei are in Hebrew and that even today
some of the words are Hebrew rather than Aramaic.
[3]
The oldest version of the Kaddish is found in the Siddur of Rab Amram Gaon, c. 900. Shira Schoenberg observes that “The first
mention of mourners saying Kaddish at the end of the service is in 13th-century halakhic writing by Isaac ben Moses of Vienna, the
Or Zarua (“Light is Sown”). The Kaddish at the end of the service became designated as Kaddish Yatom or Mourner’s Kaddish
(literally, “Orphan’s Kaddish”).
[1]
The various versions of the Kaddish are:
Ḥaṣi Qaddish (קדיש חצי (or Qaddish Lʿela (לעלא קדיש – (Literally “Half Kaddish”, sometimes called the “Reader’s
Kaddish”
Qaddish Yatom (יתום קדיש (or Qaddish Yehe Shlama Rabba (רבא שלמא יהא קדיש – (Literally “Orphan’s
Kaddish”, although commonly referred to as Qaddish Avelim (אבלים קדיש ,(the “Mourner’s Kaddish”
Qaddish Shalem (שלם קדיש (or Qaddish Titkabbal (תתקבל קדיש – (Literally “Complete Kaddish” or “Whole
Kaddish”
Qaddish de Rabbanan (דרבנן קדיש (or Qaddish ʿal Yisraʾel (ישראל על קדיש – (Literally “Kaddish of the Rabbis”
Qaddish aḥar Haqqvura (הקבורה אחר קדיש – (Literally “Kaddish after a Burial”, also called Kaddish d’Ithadata
(דאתחדתא קדיש (named after one of the first distinguishing words in this variant.
Qaddish aḥar Hashlamat Masechet (מסכת השלמת אחר קדיש – (Literally, “Kaddish after the completion of a
tractate,” i.e. at a siyum (in Sefardi practice, same as Qaddish de Rabbanan), also called Qaddish haGadol (קדיש
הגדול” (the Great Qaddish”, as it is the longest Kaddish.
All versions of the Kaddish begin with the Hatzi Kaddish (there are some extra passages in the Kaddish after a burial or a siyum). The
longer versions contain additional paragraphs and are often named after distinctive words in those paragraphs.
The Half Kaddish is used to punctuate divisions within the service: for example, before Barechu, between the Shema Yisrael and the
Amidah and following readings from the Torah. The Kaddish d’Rabbanan is used after any part of the service that includes extracts from the Mishnah or the Talmud, as its original purpose was to close a study session. Kaddish Titkabbal originally marked the end of the service, though in later times extra passages and hymns were added to follow it.
The Jewish Encyclopedia’s article on Kaddish mentions an additional type of Kaddish, called Qaddish Yahid “Individual’s Kaddish”.
[1]
This is included in the Siddur of Amram Gaon, but is a meditation taking the place of Kaddish rather than a Kaddish in the normal sense.
The following includes the half, complete, mourner’s and rabbi’s kaddish. The variant lines of the kaddish after a burial or a siyum are
given below.
History and background
Variant forms
The text of the Kaddish
2/16/2019 Kaddish – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaddish 3/12

English translation Transliteration Aramaic / Hebrew

1
May His great name
be exalted and
sanctified
.
Yitgaddal veyitqaddash
shmeh rabba
ִי ְתַּגַּדל ְו ִי ְת ַקַּדׁש ׁ ְש ֵמ ּה
ַר ָּבא
2
in the world which He created
ְּב ָע ְל ָמא ִ ּדי ְבָרא ִכְרע ּו ֵת ּה uteh’khir vra di Beʻalma! will His to according
3 May He establish His kingdom veyamlikh malkhuteh ה ּת ֵו ּלכ ְמַ
ְוַי ְמ ִליךְ
4
and may His salvation blossom and
His anointed be near.

[veyatzmaḥ purqaneh
viqarev (qetz) meshiḥeh]

ְוַי ְצ ַמח ֻּפְר ָק ֵנ ּה
ִוי ָקֵרב(קיץ) ְמׁ ִשי ֵח ּה
5
during your lifetime and during your
ְּב ַח ּיֵיכוֹן ּו ְביוֹ ֵמיכוֹן uvyomekhon beḥayekhon days
6
and during the lifetimes of all the
House of Israel,
ּו ְב ַח ּיֵי ְד ָכל [ ֵּבית] yisrael] bet [dekhol uvḥaye
ִי ְ ׂשָר ֵאל
7
speedily and very soon! And say,
Amen.
a
beʻagala uvizman qariv
veʼimru amen
ַּב ֲעָג ָלא ּו ִבְז ַמן ָקִריב.
ְו ִא ְמר ּו ָא ֵמן
The next two lines are recited by the congregation and then the leader:
8 May His great name be blessed yehe shmeh rabba
mevarakh
ְי ֵהא ׁ ְש ֵמ ּה ַר ָּבא ְמ ָבַרךְ
ְל ָע ַלם ּו ְל ָע ְל ֵמי ָע ְל ַמ ּיָא ʻalmaya ulʻalme leʻalam! eternity all to and, ever for 9
10 Blessed and praised, glorified and
exalted,
Yitbarakh veyishtabbaḥ
veyitpaar veyitromam
ְו ִיׁ ְש ַּת ַּבח ְו ִי ְת ָּפ ַאר
ִי ְת ָּבַרךְ
ְו ִי ְתרוֹ ַמם
11
extolled and honoured, adored and
lauded
veyitnasse veyithaddar
veyitʻalleh veyithallal
ְו ִי ְת ַנ ֵּׂשא ְו ִי ְת ַהָּדר
ְו ִי ְת ַע ֶּלה ְו ִי ְת ַה ָּלל
12 be the name of the Holy One,
blessed be He,a
shmeh dequdsha berikh
hu.
ׁ ְש ֵמ ּה ְד ֻקְדׁ ָשא ְּבִריךְ
ה ּוא.
13 above and beyond all the blessings, leʻella (lʻella mikkol) min
kol birkhata
ְל ֵע ָּלא ( ְל ֵע ָּלא ִמ ָּכל) ִמן
ָּכל ִּבְר ָכ ָתא
14 hymns, praises and consolations veshirata tushbeḥata
veneḥemata
ְוׁ ִשיָר ָתא ֻּתׁ ְש ְּב ָח ָתא
ְוֶנֱח ָמ ָתא
15 that are uttered in the world! And
say, Amen.a
daamiran beʻalma veʼimru
amen
ַּד ֲא ִמיָרן ְּב ָע ְל ָמא. ְו ִא ְמר ּו
ָא ֵמן
The half kaddish ends here.
Here the “complete kaddish” includes:
16 eMay the prayers and supplications Titqabbal tzelotehon
uvaʻutehon
ִּת ְת ַק ַּבל ְצלוֹ ְתהוֹן
ּו ָבע ּו ְתהוֹן
17 of all Israel d’khol bet yisrael אל ֵרָש ְ ׂי ִבית ֵּכל ָדְ
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18 be accepted by their Father who is in
Heaven; And say, Amen.a
qodam avuhon di
bishmayya, vʼimru amen
ֳקָדם ֲאב ּוהוֹן ִ ּדי ִבׁ ְש ַמ ּיָא
ְו ִא ְמר ּו ָא ֵמן
Here the “kaddish of the rabbis” (including the kaddish after a siyum) includes:
19 To Israel, to the Rabbis and their
disciples
ʻal yisrael veʻal rabbanan
veʻal talmidehon
ַעל ִי ְ ׂשָר ֵאל ְו ַעל ַר ָּב ָנן ְו ַעל
ַּת ְל ִמיֵדיהוֹן
20 to the disciples of their disciples, v’ʻal kol talmidey
talmidehon
ְו ַעל ָּכל ַּת ְל ִמיֵדי
ַת ְל ִמיֵדיהוֹן.
21 and to all those who engage in the
study of the Torah
veʻal kol man deʻos’qin
b’orayta
ְו ַעל ָּכל ָמאן ְ ּד ָע ְס ִקין
ְּבאוַֹר ְי ָתא.
22 in this [holy]z
place or in any other
place,
di b’atra [qadisha] haden
vedi bekhol atar v’atar
ִ ּדי ְב ַא ְתָרא [ ַקִדי ָשא]
ָהֵדין ְוִדי ְּב ָכל ֲא ַתר
ַו ֲא ַתר.
23 may there come abundant peace,
y’he lehon ul’khon sh’lama
rabba
ְי ֵהא ְלהוֹן ּו ְלכוֹן ׁ ְש ָל ָמא
ַר ָּבא
24 grace, lovingkindness and
compassion, long life
hinna v’ḥisda v’raḥamey
v’ḥayye arikhe
ִח ָּנא ְו ִח ְסָּדא ְוַר ֲח ֵמי ְו ַח ּיֵי
ֲאִרי ֵכי
ּו ְמזוֵֹני ְרִוי ֵחי ּופְּוְר ָק ָנא ufurqana viḥe’r zone’um salvation and sustenance ample 25
26 from the Father who is in heaven
(and earth);
min qodam avuhon di
vishmayya [v’ʼarʻa]e
ִמן ֳקָדם ֲאב ּוה ּון
ְד ִבׁ ְש ַמ ּיָא [ְו ַאְר ָעא]
27 and say, Amen.a v’ʼimru amen מן ֵא ָו ּמר ְא ִוְ
All variants but the half kaddish conclude:
28
fMay there be abundant peace from
heaven,
Yehe shelama rabba min
shemayya
ְי ֵהא ׁ ְש ָל ָמה ַר ָּבא ִמן
ׁ ְש ַמ ּיָא,
29 [and] [good] life [ve]hayyim [tovim] [ביםֹ ִטו [יםִי ּח] ַו[ְ
30 satisfaction, help, comfort, refuge, vesava vishuʻa veneḥama
veshezava
ְו ָשֹ ָבע ִויׁש ּו ָעה ְוֶנ ָח ָמה
ְוׁ ֵשיָז ָבה
31 healing, redemption, forgiveness,
atonement,
urfuʼa ugʼulla usliha
v’khappara
ְוּר ְ פוּאָה וּגֻאָלּ ְ ה וּס ִלי ָחה
ְו ַכ ָפָּרה,
ְוֵרַוח ְו ַה ָּצ ָלה vehatzala verevaḥ salvationd and relief 32
33 for us and for all his people [upon us
and upon all] Israel; and say, Amen.a
lanu ulkhol ʻammo [ʻalainu
v’al kol] yisrael v’ʼimru
amen
ָלנ ּו ּו ְל ָכל ַע ּמוֹ [ ׇע ֵלינ ּו
ְו ַעל ׇּכל] ִי ְשָֹר ֵאל ְו ִא ְמר ּו
ָא ֵמן.
34
fMay He who makes peace in His
עוֹ ֶשֹה ׁ ָשלוֹם ִּב ְמרוֹ ָמיו, bimromav shalom ʻoseh places high
35 grant [in his mercy]g
ה ּוא [ ְּבַר ֲח ָמיו] ַי ֲע ֶשֹה yaʻase] berakhamav [hu us upon peace
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ׁ ָשלוֹם ָע ֵלינ ּו, ʻalenu shalom
36 and upon all [his nation]h
Israel; and
say, Amen.a
v’ʻal kol [ammo] yisra’el,
v’ʼimru amen
ְו ַעל ָּכל [ ַע ּמוֹ] ִי ְשָֹר ֵאל
ְו ִא ְמר ּו ָא ֵמן.
In the burial kaddish, and that after a siyum according to Ashkenazim,
i
, lines 2-3 are replaced by:

English translation Transcription Aramaic

37 In the world which will be renewed B’ʻal’ma d’hu ʻatid l’ithaddata תיד ִע ָוא ּדה ְמא ָל ְע ָבְּ
ְל ִא ְת ַחָּד ָתא
38 and where He will give life to the
ּו ְל ַא ֲחָי ָאה ֵמ ַתָיא metaya ulʼaḥaya dead
ּו ְל ַא ָּס ָקא ָי ְתהוֹן ְל ַח ּיֵי ָע ְל ָמא ma’ʻal ḥayye’l yathon ulʼassaqa life eternal to them raise and 39
ּו ְל ִמ ְב ֵנא ַקְר ָּתא ִדיר ּוׁ ְש ֵלם lem’dirush qarta mivne’ul Jerusalem of city the rebuild and 40
41 and complete His temple there uleshakhlala hekhlehh
ּו ְלׁ ַש ְכ ָל ָלא ֵהי ְכ ֵל ּה ְּבַגַּו ּה gavvah’b
42 and uproot foreign worship from the
earth
ulmeʻqar pulḥana nukhraʼa
m’arʻa
ּו ְל ֶמ ְע ַקר ֻּפ ְל ָח ָנא נֻ ְכָר ָאה
ְמ ַאְר ָעא
43 and restore Heavenly worship to its
position
v’laʼatava pulḥana dishmayya
l’ʼatreh
ּו ַל ֲא ָת ָבא ֻּפ ְל ָח ָנא ִדׁ ְש ַמ ּיָא
ְל ַא ְתֵר ּה
44 and may the Holy One, blessed is
He, v’yamlikh qudsha b’rikh hu וא ּה
ֻקְדׁ ָשא ְּבִריךְ
ְוַי ְמ ִליךְ
ְּב ַמ ְלכ ּו ֵת ּה ִוי ָקֵר ּה viqareh malkhuteh’b … splendour sovereign His in reign 45
In some recent prayerbooks, for example, the American Reform Machzor,
[4]
line 36 is replaced with:
36 all Israel, and all who dwell on
earth; and let us say: Amen.
v’al kol isra’el, v’al kol
yoshve tevel; v’imru: Amen.
ְו ַעל ָּכל ִי ְשָֹר ֵאל ְו ַעל ָּכל
יוֺׁ ְש ֵבי ֵת ֵבל ְו ִא ְמר ּו ָא ֵמן
This effort to extend the reach of Oseh Shalom to non-Jews is said to have been started by the British Liberal Jewish movement in
1967, with the introduction of v’al kol bnai Adam (“and upon all children of Adam”);
[5]
these words continue to be used by some in
the UK.
[6]
NOTE: The phrase אדם בן) ben adam) pl. אדם בני) bnai adam) literally means “son of adam” or “son of man” but in Hebrew usage the
phrase is taken to mean “human.” The British usage above, then would be to invoke peace on all humankind, rather than on sons of
children or descendants of Adam.
Bracketed text varies according to personal or communal traditions.
(a) The congregation responds with “amen” (מן ֵאָ (after lines 1, 4, 7, 12, 15, 18, 27, 33, 36. In the Ashkenazi tradition,
the response to line 12 is “Blessed be he” (הוּא ריִבּ ְb’rikh hu).
Text of the burial kaddish
Recent additions to Oseh Shalom
Note
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaddish 6/12
(b) On line 1, some say Yitgaddeyl veyitqaddeysh rather than Yitgaddal veyitqaddash, because the roots of these two
words are Hebrew and not Aramaic (the Aramaic equivalent would be Yitrabay veyitkadash), some authorities (but
not others) felt that both words should be rendered in pure Hebrew pronunciation.
[7]
(c) Line 13: in the Ashkenazi tradition the repeated “le’ela” is used only during the Ten Days of Repentance. In the
Sephardi tradition it is never used. In the Yemenite tradition it is the invariable wording. The phrase “le’ela le’ela” is the
Targum’s translation of the Hebrew “ma’la ma’la” (Deuteronomy 28:43).
(d) Lines 4 and 30–32 are not present in the Ashkenazi tradition. “Revaḥ vehatzala” is said aloud by the
congregation.
(e) Line 26: some Sephardi Jews say malka [or maram or mareh] di-shmaya ve-ar’a (the King [or Master] of Heaven
and Earth) instead of avuhon de-vi-shmaya (their Father in Heaven); De Sola Pool uses mara; the London Spanish
and Portuguese Jews use the same text as the Ashkenazim.
[8]
(f) During the “complete kaddish” some include the following congregational responses, which are not regarded as
part of the text:
Before line 16, “accept our prayer with mercy and favour”
Before line 28, “May the name of God be blessed, from now and forever” (Psalms 113:2 (http://www.mechon-mam
re.org/p/pt/pt26b3.htm#2))
Before line 34, “My help is from God, creator of heaven and earth” (Psalms 121:2 (http://www.mechon-mamre.org/
p/pt/pt26c1.htm#2))
(g) Line 35: “b’rahamav” is used by Sephardim in all versions of kaddish; by Ashkenazim only in “Kaddish
deRabbanan”.
(h) Line 36: “ammo” is used by most Sephardim, but not by some of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews or
Ashkenazim.
(i) Lines 37 to 45: these lines are also recited by Yemenite Jews as part of every Kaddish DeRabbanan.
(z) In line 22, the bracketed word is added in the Land of Israel.
In line 1, as noted in (a), the congregation responds “Amen”, even though this commonly is not printed in most
prayerbooks. This longstanding and widespread tradition actually introduces a break in the verse which may lead to
misinterpretation as the phrase “according to His will” would then appear to apply only to “which he created” instead
of to “Magnified and sanctified”.
[9]
It is common that the entire congregation recites lines 8 and 9 with the leader, and it is also common that the
congregation will include in its collective recitation the first word of the next line (line 10), Yitbarakh. This is commonly
thought to be done to prevent any interruption before the next line (which begins with Yitbarakh) is recited by the
leader. But this inclusion of Yitbarakh has not always been the case. Maimonides and the Tur did not include it in the
congregation’s recitation; Amram Gaon, the Vilna Gaon, and the Shulchan Aruch include it.
[10]
The Kaddish, as used in the services on special days is chanted. There are different melodies in different Jewish traditions and within
each tradition the melody can change according to the version, the day it is said and even the position in the service; many mourners
recite it slowly and contemplatively.
Virtual Cantor’s Kaddish Shalem for Shabbat Mussaf (http://www.virtualcantor.com/162%20musaf%20kaddish%20sha
lem.mp3)
Virtual Cantor’s Hatzi Kaddish for Yom Kippur (http://www.virtualcantor.com/483%20RMus%20chatzi%20kaddish.mp
3)
In Sephardi synagogues the whole congregation sits for Kaddish, except:
during the Kaddish immediately before the Amidah, where everyone stands;
during the Mourner’s Kaddish, where those reciting it stand and everyone else sits.
In Ashkenazi synagogues, the custom varies. Very commonly, in both Orthodox and Reform congregations, everyone stands; but in
some (especially many Conservative and Hasidic) synagogues, most of the congregants sit. Sometimes, a distinction is made between
the different forms of Kaddish, or each congregant stands or sits according to his or her own custom. The Mourner’s Kaddish is often
treated differently from the other variations of Kaddish in the service, as is the Half Kaddish before the maftir.
Customs
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Those standing to recite the Kaddish bow, by widespread tradition, at various places. Generally: At the first word of the prayer, at each
Amen, at Yitbarakh, at Brikh hu, and for the last verse (Oseh shalom). For Oseh shalom it is customary take three steps back (if
possible) then bow to one’s left, then to one’s right, and finally bow forward, as if taking leave of the presence of a king, in the same
way as when the same words are used as the concluding line of the Amidah.
[11]
Masekhet Soferim, an eighth-century compilation of Jewish laws regarding the preparation of holy books and public reading, states
(Chapter 10:7) that Kaddish may be recited only in the presence of a minyan (at least 10 men).
[12] While the traditional view is that “if
kaddish is said in private, then by definition, it is not kaddish,”
[13] some alternatives have been suggested, including the Kaddish
L’yachid (“Kaddish for an individual”),
[14] attributed to ninth-century Gaon Amram bar Sheshna,
[15] and the use of kavanah prayer,
asking heavenly beings to join with the individual “to make a minyan of both Earth and heaven”.
[16]
“Mourner’s Kaddish”
[17]
is said at all prayer services and certain other occasions. It is written in Aramaic.
[18]
It takes the form of
Kaddish Yehe Shelama Rabba, and is traditionally recited several times, most prominently at or towards the end of the service, after
the Aleinu and/or closing Psalms and/or (on the Sabbath) Ani’im Zemirot. Following the death of a parent, child, spouse, or sibling it
is customary to recite the Mourner’s Kaddish in the presence of a congregation daily for thirty days, or eleven months in the case of a
parent,
[19] and then at every anniversary of the death.
[20] The “mourner” who says the Kaddish will be any person present at a service
who has the obligation to recite Kaddish in accordance with these rules.
Customs for reciting the Mourner’s Kaddish vary markedly among various communities. In Sephardi synagogues, the custom is that
all the mourners stand and chant the Kaddish together. In Ashkenazi synagogues, the earlier custom was that one mourner be chosen to
lead the prayer on behalf of the rest, though most congregations have now adopted the Sephardi custom. In many Reform synagogues,
the entire congregation recites the Mourner’s Kaddish together. This is sometimes said to be for those victims of the Holocaust who
have no one left to recite the Mourner’s Kaddish on their behalf. In some congregations (especially Reform and Conservative ones),
the Rabbi will read a list of the deceased who have a Yahrzeit on that day (or who have died within the past month), and then ask the
congregants to name any people they are mourning for. Some synagogues try to multiply the number of times that the Mourner’s
Kaddish is recited, for example, reciting a separate Mourner’s Kaddish after both Aleinu and then each closing Psalm. Other
synagogues limit themselves to one Mourner’s Kaddish at the end of the service.
Saying the Mourner’s Kaddish was mostly prohibited for Orthodox Jewish women, but is now becoming more common.
[21]
In 2013
the Israeli Orthodox rabbinical organization Beit Hillel issued a halachic ruling which allows women, for the first time, to say the
Kaddish in memory of their deceased parents.
[22]
It is important to note that the Mourner’s Kaddish does not mention death at all, but instead praises God. Though the Kaddish is often
popularly referred to as the “Jewish Prayer for the Dead,” that designation more accurately belongs to the prayer called “El Malei
Rachamim”, which specifically prays for the soul of the deceased.
The Kaddish has been a particularly common theme and reference point in the arts, including the following:
(Alphabetical by author)
Minyan requirement
Mourner’s Kaddish
Use of the Kaddish in the arts
In literature and publications
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In Shai Afsai’s “The Kaddish (http://401j.wordpress.com/2015/01/16/the-kaddish-a-short-story/),” a poignant short
story that could happen in almost any town with a small Jewish community, a group of elderly men trying to form a
minyan in order to recite the Kaddish confront the differences between Judaism’s denominations.
[23]
Kaddish is a poem, divided into 21 sections and of almost 700 pages length, by German poet Paulus Böhmer. The
first ten sections appeared in 2002, the remaining eleven in 2007. It celebrates the world, through mourning its
demise.
Kaddish in Dublin (1990) crime novel by John Brady where an Irish Jew is involved with a plot to subvert the Irish
government.
In Nathan Englander’s novel set during the Dirty Wars in Argentina, The Ministry of Special Cases, the protagonist is
an Argentinian Jew named Kaddish.
In Torch Song Trilogy (1982), written by Harvey Fierstein, the main character Arnold Beckoff says the Mourner’s
Kaddish for his murdered lover, Alan, much to the horror of his homophobic mother.
In Frederick Forsyth’s novel The Odessa File, a Jew who commits suicide in 1960s Germany requests in his
diary/suicide note that someone say Kaddish for him in Israel. At the end of the novel, a Mossad agent involved in the
plot, who comes into possession of the diary, fulfils the dead man’s wish.
Kaddish is one of the most celebrated poems by the beat poet Allen Ginsberg. It appeared in Kaddish and Other
Poems, a collection he published in 1961. The poem was dedicated to his mother, Naomi Ginsberg (1894–1956).
Kaddish (book), a novel by Yehiel De-Nur
Kaddish for an Unborn Child is a novel by the Hungarian Nobel Laureate Imre Kertész.
“Who Will Say Kaddish?: A Search for Jewish Identity in Contemporary Poland,” text by Larry N Mayer with
photographs by Gary Gelb (Syracuse University Press, 2002)
In the September 20, 1998 Nickolodeon’s Rugrats comic strip, the character Grandpa Boris recites the Mourner’s
Kaddish in the synagogue. This particular strip led to controversy with the Anti-Defamation League.
[24]
The Mystery of Kaddish. Rav “DovBer Pinson”. Explains and explores the Kabbalistic and deeper meaning of the
Kaddish.
In Philip Roth’s novel The Human Stain, the narrator states that the Mourner’s Kaddish signifies that “a Jew is dead.
Another Jew is dead. As though death were not a consequence of life but a consequence of having been a Jew.”
Zadie Smith’s novel, The Autograph Man, revolves around Alex-Li Tandem, a dealer in autograph memorabilia whose
father’s Yahrzeit is approaching. The epilogue of the novel features a scene in which Alex-Li recites Kaddish with a
minyan.
Several references to the Mourner’s Kaddish are made in Night by Elie Wiesel. Though the prayer is never directly
said, references to it are common, including to times when it is customarily recited, but omitted.
Leon Wieseltier’s Kaddish (1998) is a book length hybrid of memoirs (of the author’s year of mourning after the death
of his father), history, historiography and philosophical reflection, all centered on the mourner’s Kaddish.
(Alphabetical by creator)
Kaddish is the name of Symphony No. 3 by Leonard Bernstein, a dramatic work for orchestra, mixed chorus, boys’
choir, speaker and soprano solo dedicated to the memory of John F. Kennedy who was assassinated on November
22, 1963, just weeks before the first performance of this symphony. The symphony is centered on the Kaddish text.
The Kaddish is spoken in Part V of the Avodath Hakodesh (Sacred Service) by the composer Ernest Bloch (1933).
Kaddish is a work for cello and orchestra by David Diamond.
Kaddish is the title for a work by W. Francis McBeth for a concert band, based on the chant of the prayer. McBeth
composed this work as a memorial for his teacher J. Clifton Williams.
[25]
Kaddish is a track by Gina X Performance
“Kaddish” is the 34th movement in La Pasión según San Marcos by composer Osvaldo Golijov.
The French composer Maurice Ravel composed a (piano and violin) song using part of the Kaddish. It was
commissioned in 1914 by Alvina Alvi as part of a set of two songs: “Deux mélodies hébraïques” and was first
performed in June 1914 by Alvi with Ravel at the piano.
Kaddish Shalem is a musical work by Salamone Rossi (1570–c. 1628), composed for five voices in homophonic style,
the very first polyphonic setting of this text, in his “Hashirim Asher L’Shomo”, The Song of Solomon.
Inspired by Kaddish is a fifteen-movement musical composition by Lawrence Siegel. One of the movements is the
prayer itself; the remaining fourteen are stories of the experiences of a number of Holocaust survivors Lawrence
interviewed. It was debuted by the Keene State College Chamber Singers in 2008.
[26]
In music
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Mieczysław Weinberg’s Symphony No. 21 is subtitled “Kaddish”. The symphony, composed in 1991, is dedicated to
Holocaust victims from the Warsaw Ghetto.
[27]
Concept album Kaddish (1993) created by Richard Wolfson with Andy Saunders using the band name Towering
Inferno.
Canadian poet/songwriter/artist Leonard Cohen uses words from the Kaddish in his 2016 final album entitled “You
Want it Darker”, specifically in the title song, during the chorus.*
Mira Z. Amiras and Erin L. Vang have taken the Kaddish as a starting point for a yearlong collaboration titled,
“Kaddish in Two-Part Harmony”, consisting of a jointly written blog and daily podcast recording of Lev Kogan’s
“Kaddish” for solo horn.
[28]
(Chronological)
In the 1973 film Les aventures de Rabbi Jacob (The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob), it is chanted at the end of the
Bar-Mitzvah service.
In the film The Passover Plot (1976), a revived Jesus dies finally and is mourned with a Kaddish recitation by a
disciple.
In the 1980 film The Jazz Singer starring Neil Diamond, character Cantor Rabinovitch (Laurence Olivier) says the
Kaddish while disowning his son. The Kaddish helps bring forth the power needed to evoke the emotion of loss.
In Rocky III (1982), Rocky Balboa recites the Mourner’s Kaddish for Mickey.
In the film Yentl (1983), at Yentl’s father’s burial, the rabbi asks who will say Kaddish (Kaddish is traditionally said by a
son). Yentl replies that she will and, to the horror of those assembled, grabs the siddur and starts saying Kaddish.
In Torch Song Trilogy (1988), Arnold (portrayed by playwright Harvey Fierstein) says the Mourner’s Kaddish for his
murdered lover, Alan, and Arnold’s mother (portrayed by Anne Bancroft) strongly protests.
Film Saying the Kaddish (1999) by Dan Frazer
The Kaddish is recited in the film Schindler’s List (1993), in the last scene at the factory.
(Alphabetical by program title)
In the television series Drawn Together, Toot Braunstein recites the Mourner’s Kaddish in the episode “A Very Special
Drawn Together Afterschool Special”, after saying that her son was (metaphorically) dead.
In the television show Everwood, Ephram Brown recites the Mourner’s Kaddish at his mother’s unveiling.
In the second-season finale of Homeland, The Choice, CIA agent Saul Berenson (Mandy Patinkin) recites the
Mourner’s Kaddish while standing over the corpses of victims of a terrorist attack.
“Kaddish” is the title of Homicide: Life on the Street episode 5.17, in which detective John Munch (Richard Belzer),
who is Jewish, investigates the rape and murder of his childhood sweetheart.
Kaddish For Uncle Manny”,
[29] episode 4.22 of Northern Exposure (first aired 5-3-93) relates to Joel’s (Rob Morrow)
seeking out of ten Jews in remote Alaska to join him for Kaddish in memory of his recently departed Uncle Manny in
New York City. Joel eventually decides, though, that saying Kaddish for his uncle is best accomplished in the
presence of his new Cicely family, who although Gentile, are most near and dear to him.
The second season of the series Quantico, FBI Special Agent Nimah Amin, herself a Muslim, recites the Mourner’s
Kaddish at Simon Asher’s unveiling.
The fictional character Dan Turpin was killed by Darkseid in Superman: The Animated Series, and a Rabbi said
Kaddish at his funeral. An onscreen, post-episode message dedicated the episode to Jack Kirby, a Jewish comic
book artist, who influenced much of the comic book community.
In the series Touched by an Angel, episode 3.5 (season 3, episode 5), Henry Moskowitz, a proud archaeologist on a
dig at a Navajo excavation site, receives a surprise visit from zayda (grandfather). Sam hopes to reconcile with his
grandson and Jewish family faith by asking him to say kaddish.
[30]
“Kaddish” is the title of The X-Files episode 4.15 (season 4, episode 15), in which a Golem is avenging a murder.
Online
Onscreen, in film
Onscreen, in television
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In Tony Kushner’s play Angels in America (and the subsequent TV miniseries), the characters of Louis Ironson and
Ethel Rosenberg say the Kaddish over Roy Cohn’s dead body. Louis, a non-practicing Jew, mistakenly identifies the
Kaddish as being written in Hebrew.
Kaddish is a female dance solo choreographed by Anna Sokolow to music by Maurice Ravel.
The Mourner’s Kaddish can be heard being recited by Collins and Roger during the song “La Vie Boheme” in the
musical Rent.
Bereavement in Judaism
Notes

  1. “Jewishvirtuallibrary.org” (https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/kaddish.html). Jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
    Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  2. Pool, D. de S., The Kaddish, Sivan Press, Ltd, Jerusalem, 1909, (3rd printing, 1964). (see David de Sola Pool)
  3. https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-5301143,00.html
  4. Mishkan HaNefesh. New York: Central Conference of American Rabbis. 2015. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-88123-208-0.
  5. Villa, Diana (July 2006). “Addition at the end of Kaddish” (https://web.archive.org/web/20101218180416/http://schecht
    er.edu/AskTheRabbi.aspx?ID=317). The Schechter Institutes. Archived from the original (http://www.schechter.edu/As
    kTheRabbi.aspx?ID=317) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  6. Winer, Mark. “Torah from around the world #73” (https://web.archive.org/web/20120419155800/http://wupj.org/Publica
    tions/Newsletter.asp?ContentID=443). World Union for Progressive Judaism. Archived from the original (http://www.w
    upj.org/Publications/Newsletter.asp?ContentID=443) on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  7. Scherman, Nosson, The Kaddish Prayer: A new translation with a commentary anthologized from Talmudic, Midrashic
    and Rabbinic Sources (Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ’ns, 3rd ed. 1991) page 28; Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of
    Jewish Prayer (Aronson, NJ, 1993) s.v. Kaddish, pages 185–186; see also the pointed Hebrew translations of the
    Kaddish in the Siddur Rinat Yisroel (Jerusalem, 1977) Ashkenaz ed. page 40, and in Rosenstein, Siddur Shirah
    Hadasha (Eshkol, Jerusalem, no date, reprinted circa 1945 – but original edition was 1914) page 38; Silverman,
    Morris, Comments on the Text of the Siddur, Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 2, nr. 1 (1977–78) page 21.
  8. Silverman, Morris, Comments on the Text of the Siddur, Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 2, nr. 1 (1977–78)
    page 21.
  9. Mishcon, A., Disputed Phrasings in the Siddur, Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 7 n.s., nr. 4 (April 1917) page 545.
  10. Mishcon, A., Disputed Phrasings in the Siddur, Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 7 n.s., nr. 4 (April 1917) pages 545–546;
    Nulman, Macy, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (Aronson, NJ, 1993) s.v. Kaddish, page 186.
  11. H.D. Assaf, Kaddish: Its origins, meanings and laws (Maimonides Research Inst., Haifa, 1966) 2003 English ed.
    pages 228–233; M. Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (Aronson, NJ, 1993) page 186.
  12. Blumenthal, David. “Kaddish” (http://www.js.emory.edu/BLUMENTHAL/Kaddish.html). Emory University. Retrieved
    22 December 2015.
  13. “Kaddish Without A Minyan” (http://www.ohr.edu/ask_db/ask_main.php/210/Q1/). Ohr Somayach: Ask the Rabbi.
    Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  14. Amram Gaon. “Kaddish L’yachid” (https://rebpam.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Kaddish-L-yachid-from-the-Siddur
    -of-Amram-Gaon.pdf) (PDF) (in Hebrew). Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  15. Frydman, Pamela. “Mourner’s Prayer without a minyan” (https://rebpam.com/prayers/kaddish-lyachid/). Rabbi Pamela
    Frydman. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
    Onstage, in dance, theater and musicals
    See also
    References
    2/16/2019 Kaddish – Wikipedia
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaddish 11/12
    Bibliography
    Cyrus Adler, et al. “Kaddish” (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=7&letter=K). Jewish Encyclopedia,
  16. pp. 401–403.
    Yesodot Tefillah, Rabbi Eliezer Levi, published by Abraham Zioni Publishing House, Israel 1977. P173
    Kaddish is a female dance solo choreographed by Anna Sokolow to Maurice Ravel.
    de Sola Pool, Kaddish (1909) 1
    Jewish Virtual Library – Jewish Prayers: The Mourner’s Kaddish (https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/)
    Neirot Foundation: The Importance of Kaddish (http://www.neirot.com/jewish-perspective-values/the-importance-of-ka
    ddish/)
    myKaddish.com (http://www.mykaddish.com/)
    The Kaddish Foundation: A non-profit who recite the Kaddish every day for eleven months following the death of a
    Jewish relative, loved-one or friend. (http://www.kaddishfoundation.com/)
    The Kaddish (http://birkat-hamazon.com/Kaddish)
    Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kaddish&oldid=875210245”
  17. Dosick, Wayne (September 5, 2003). “For the Solitary Mourner: A Prayer of Godly Praise” (http://forward.com/articles/
    8079/for-the-solitary-mourner-a-prayer-of-godly-praise/). The Forward. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  18. “Text of the Mourner’s Kaddish in Hebrew, with English transliteration and translation” (http://www.jewfaq.org/prayer/k
    addish.htm). Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  19. “Why is the Kaddish in Aramaic?” (http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1737300/jewish/Why-is-the-KaddishRecited-in-Aramaic.htm) chabad.org
  20. The rule is daily recitation for a full 12 months from the date of burial for a sibling, child, spouse, or other relation, but
    since one does not consider one’s own parent to be an ordinary sinner the recitation for a parent is one month less –
    eleven months.
  21. Yahrzeit Customs (http://kaddish-prayer.com/yahrzeit/) kaddish-prayer.com
  22. Orthodox Women Embrace The Kaddish (http://www.thedailybeast.com/witw/articles/2013/11/22/more-orthodox-wom
    en-saying-the-kaddish.html) thedailybeast.com
  23. Ruchama Weiss; Levi Brackman. “Halachic ruling: Women may say Kaddish” (http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,73
    40,L-4396702,00.html). Ynetnews. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  24. Shai Afsai, “The Kaddish (http://401j.wordpress.com/2015/01/16/the-kaddish-a-short-story/),” Jerusalem Post, Aug.
    27, 2010.
  25. Goldberg, Denny (January–February 1999). “The ADL vs. Superman” (http://www.tikkun.org/article.php?story=jan199
    9_goldberg). Tikkun Magazine. Berkeley, CA: Tikkun. 14 (1): 5. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  26. “Concordband.org” (http://concordband.org/winter07.html). Concordband.org. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  27. “Kaddishproject.org” (https://web.archive.org/web/20120114142127/http://www.kaddishproject.org/pdf/KaddishENews
    2.pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original (http://www.kaddishproject.org/pdf/KaddishENews2.pdf) (PDF) on 2012-01-
  28. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  29. Norris, Geoffrey. “Weinberg Symphony No 21 (review)” (http://www.gramophone.co.uk/review/weinberg-symphony-no
    -21). Gramophone Magazine. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  30. “Beitmalkhut.org” (http://beitmalkhut.org). Beitmalkhut.org. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  31. TV.com (2006-05-14). “TV.com” (http://www.tv.com/northern-exposure/kaddish-for-uncle-manny/episode/189347/sum
    mary.html). TV.com. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
  32. “Written in Dust” (http://www.tv.com/shows/touched-by-an-angel/written-in-dust-3414/) tv.com
    External links
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