Positive Commandments

א  מִצְוָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִמִּצְווֹת עֲשֵׂה, לֵידַע שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם אֱלוֹהַּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אָנֹכִי ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ” (שמות כ,ב; דברים ה,ו). 1  The first of the positive commandments is to know that there exists God, as it is written “I am the LORD, thy God” (Exodus 20,2; Deuteronomy 5,6).
ב  לְיַחֲדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “ה’ אֱלֹהֵינוּ, ה’ אֶחָד” (דברים ו,ד). 2  To acknowledge His Oneness, as it is written “the LORD our God, the LORD is One” (Deuteronomy 6,4).
ג  לְאָהֳבוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָהַבְתָּ, אֵת ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ” (דברים ו,ה; דברים יא,א). 3  To love Him, as it is written “and thou shalt love the LORD thy God” (Deuteronomy 6,5; Deuteronomy 11,1).
ד  לְיִרְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֶת-ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא” (דברים ו,יג; דברים י,כ). 4  To fear Him, as it is written “thou shalt fear the LORD thy God” (Deuteronomy 6,13; Deuteronomy 10,20).
ה  לְהִתְפַּלַּל לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וַעֲבַדְתֶּם, אֵת ה’ אֱלֹהֵיכֶם” (שמות כג,כה); עֲבוֹדָה זוֹ תְּפִלָּה. 5  To pray to Him, as it is written “and ye shall serve the LORD your God” (Exodus 23,25); this service is prayer.
ו  לְדָבְקָה בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבוֹ תִדְבָּק” (דברים י,כ). 6  To cleave to Him, as it is written “and to Him shalt thou cleave” (Deuteronomy 10,20).
ז  לְהִשָּׁבַע בִּשְׁמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבִשְׁמוֹ, תִּשָּׁבֵעַ” (דברים ו,יג;דברים י,כ). 7  To swear by His Name, as it is written “and by His name, shalt thou swear” (Deuteronomy 6,13; Deuteronomy 10,20).
ח  לְהִדַּמּוֹת בִּדְרָכָיו הַטּוֹבִים וְהַיְּשָׁרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָלַכְתָּ, בִּדְרָכָיו” (דברים כח,ט). 8  To imitate His good and upright ways, as it is written “and walk in His ways” (Deuteronomy 28,9).
ט  לְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי, בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל” (ויקרא כב,לב). 9  To sanctify His Name, as it is written “but I will be hallowed among the Children of Israel” (Leviticus 22,32).
י  לִקְרוֹת קִרְיַת שְׁמַע פַּעֲמַיִם בְּכָל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם . . . וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ” (דברים ו,ז). 10  To recite the Shema` twice daily, as it is written “and thou shalt talk of them . . . when thou liest down, and when thou risest up” (Deuteronomy 6,7).
יא  לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה וּלְלַמְּדָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ” (דברים ו,ז). 11  To learn Torah and to teach it, as it is written “thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children” (Deuteronomy 6,7).
יב  לִקְשֹׁר תְּפִלִּין בָּרֹאשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת, בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ” (דברים ו,ח). 12  To bind tefillin on the head, as it is written “and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes” (Deuteronomy 6,8).
יג  לִקְשֹׁר תְּפִלִּין בַּיָּד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת, עַל-יָדֶךָ” (דברים ו,ח). 13  To bind tefillin on the arm, as it is written “and thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand” (Deuteronomy 6,8).
יד  לַעֲשׂוֹת צִיצִית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת” (במדבר טו,לח). 14  To make tzitzit, as it is written “and they shall make for themselves fringes” (Numbers 15,38).
טו  לִקְבֹּעַ מְזוּזָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל-מְזֻזוֹת” (דברים ו,ט; דברים יא,כ). 15  To fasten a mezuzah, as it is written “and thou shalt write them upon the door-posts” (Deuteronomy 6,9; Deuteronomy 11,20).
טז  לְהַקְהִיל אֶת הָעָם לִשְׁמֹעַ תּוֹרָה בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הַקְהֵל אֶת-הָעָם” (דברים לא,יב). 16  To assemble the people to hear Torah after the end of the Sabbatical year, as it is written “assemble the people” (Deuteronomy 31,12).
יז  לִכְתֹּב כָּל אִישׁ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּתְבוּ לָכֶם אֶת-הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת” (דברים לא,יט). 17  For each man to write a Torah scroll for himself, as it is written “write ye this song for you” (Deuteronomy 31,19).
יח  לִכְתֹּב הַמֶּלֶךְ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה לְעַצְמוֹ, יָתֵר עַל הָאֶחָד שֶׁלְּכָל אָדָם, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת-מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת” (דברים יז,יח). 18  For the king to write a Torah scroll for himself, besides the one for every man, so that he shall have two Torah scrolls, as it is written “and he shall write for himself a copy of this Torah” (Deuteronomy 17,18).
יט  לְבָרַךְ אַחַר הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָכַלְתָּ, וְשָׂבָעְתָּ–וּבֵרַכְתָּ” (דברים ח,י). 19  To say a blessing after meals, as it is written “thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless” (Deuteronomy 8,10).
כ  לִבְנוֹת בֵּית הַבְּחִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָשׂוּ לִי, מִקְדָּשׁ” (שמות כה,ח). 20  To build the Sanctuary, as it is written “and they shall make Me a sanctuary” (Exodus 25,8).
כא  לְיִרְאָה מִבַּיִת זֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ” (ויקרא יט,ל; ויקרא כו,ב). 21  To revere this house, as it is written “and reverence My sanctuary” (Leviticus 19,30; Leviticus 26,2).
כב  לִשְׁמֹר בַּיִת זֶה תָּמִיד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ, לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת” (במדבר יח,ב). 22  To stand guard over this house perpetually, as it is written “thou and thy sons with thee being before the tent of the testimony” (Numbers 18,2).
כג  לִהְיוֹת הַלֵּוִי עוֹבֵד בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא” (במדבר יח,כג). 23  For the Levite to serve in the Temple, as it is written “and the Levite alone shall serve” (Numbers 18,23).
כד  לְקַדַּשׁ הַכּוֹהֵן יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו בְּשָׁעַת הָעֲבוֹדָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו . . .” (שמות ל,יט). 24  For the Priest to sanctify his hands and feet at the time of service, as it is written “and Aharon and his sons shall wash . . .” (Exodus 30,19).
כה  לַעֲרֹךְ נֵרוֹת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו” (שמות כז,כא). 25  To arrange lamps in the Temple, as it is written “Aharon and his sons shall set it in order” (Exodus 27,21).
כו  לְבָרַךְ הַכּוֹהֲנִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ אֶת-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל” (במדבר ו,כג). 26  For the Priests to bless Israel, as it is written “thus shall ye bless the Children of Israel” (Numbers 6,23).
כז  לְהַסְדִּיר לֶחֶם וּלְבוֹנָה לִפְנֵי ה’ בְּכָל שַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְנָתַתָּ עַל-הַשֻּׁלְחָן לֶחֶם פָּנִים” (שמות כה,ל). 27  To set in order bread and frankincense before the LORD every Sabbath, as it is written “thou shalt set upon the table showbread” (Exodus 25,30).
כח  לְהַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת פַּעֲמַיִם בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן, קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים” (שמות ל,ז). 28  To burn incense twice daily, as it is written “and Aharon shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices” (Exodus 30,7).
כט  לַעֲרֹךְ אֵשׁ בְּמִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה תָּמִיד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֵשׁ, תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל-הַמִּזְבֵּחַ” (ויקרא ו,ו). 29  To arrange a fire perpetually on the Altar of the Burnt Offering, as it is written “fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually” (Leviticus 6,6).
ל  לְהָרִים הַדֶּשֶׁן מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּכָל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהֵרִים אֶת-הַדֶּשֶׁן” (ויקרא ו,ג). 30  To remove the ashes from upon the Altar daily, as it is written “and he shall take up the ashes” (Leviticus 6,3).
לא  לְשַׁלַּח טְמֵאִים מִמַּחֲנֵה שְׁכִינָה שְׁהוּא הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן-הַמַּחֲנֶה, כָּל-צָרוּעַ וְכָל-זָב” (במדבר ה,ב). 31  To send the unclean out of the Camp of the Holy Presence, that is, the Temple, as it is written “that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath a defiling issue” (Numbers 5,2).
לב  לַחְלֹק כָּבוֹד לְזַרְעוֹ שֶׁלְּאַהֲרוֹן וּלְהַקְדִּימוֹ לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ” (ויקרא כא,ח). 32  To show honor to the offspring of Aharon and to give him priority in all things holy, as it is written “and thou shalt sanctify him” (Leviticus 21,8).
לג  לִהְיוֹת הַכּוֹהֲנִים לוֹבְשִׁים לָעֲבוֹדָה בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָשִׂיתָ בִגְדֵי-קֹדֶשׁ” (שמות כח,ב). 33  For the Priests to wear priestly garments for their service, as it is written “and thou shalt make holy garments” (Exodus 28,2).
לד  לָשֵׂאת הָאָרוֹן עַל הַכָּתֵף כְּשֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִין אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּכָּתֵף יִשָּׂאוּ” (במדבר ז,ט). 34  To bear the Ark on the shoulder when carrying it, as it is written “they shall bear upon the shoulder” (Numbers 7,9).
לה  לִמְשֹׁחַ כּוֹהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּמְלָכִים בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה” (שמות ל,לא). 35  To anoint high priests and kings with the anointing oil, as it is written “this shall be a holy anointing oil” (Exodus 30,31).
לו  לִהְיוֹת הַכּוֹהֲנִים עוֹבְדִין בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מִשְׁמָרוֹת מִשְׁמָרוֹת, וּבַמּוֹעֲדִים עוֹבְדִין כְּאֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-יָבֹא הַלֵּוִי . . .” (דברים יח,ו) “לְבַד מִמְכָּרָיו, עַל-הָאָבוֹת” (דברים יח,ח). 36  For the Priests to serve in the Temple in divisions, but on festivals to serve together, as it is written “and if a Levite come . . .” (Deuteronomy 18,6) “beside that which is his due according to the fathers’ houses” (Deuteronomy 18,8).
לז  לִהְיוֹת הַכּוֹהֲנִים מִטַּמֵּאִין לִקְרוֹבֵיהֶם וּמִתְאַבְּלִין עֲלֵיהֶן כִּשְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁהֶן מְצֻוִּין לְהִתְאַבַּל עַל מֵתֵיהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “לָהּ, יִטַּמָּא” (ויקרא כא,ג). 37  For the Priests to become unclean for their deceased relatives and mourn for them like the rest of Israel who are commanded to mourn for their dead, as it is written “for her, he shall defile himself” (Leviticus 21,3).
לח  לִהְיוֹת כּוֹהֵן גָּדוֹל נוֹשֵׂא בְּתוּלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהוּא, אִשָּׁה בִבְתוּלֶיהָ יִקָּח” (ויקרא כא,יג). 38  For the High Priest to marry a virgin, as it is written “and he shall take a wife in her virginity” (Leviticus 21,13).
לט  לְהַקְרִיב תְּמִידִין בְּכָל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם, עֹלָה תָמִיד” (במדבר כח,ג). 39  To offer the perpetual sacrifices daily, as it is written “two a day, for a continual burnt-offering” (Numbers 28,3).
מ  לְהַקְרִיב כּוֹהֵן גָּדוֹל מִנְחָה בְּכָל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֶה קָרְבַּן אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו” (ויקרא ו,יג). 40  For the High Priest to offer a meal offering daily, as it is written “this is the offering of Aharon and of his sons” (Leviticus 6,13).
מא  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן אַחֵר בְּכָל שַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבְיוֹם, הַשַּׁבָּת–שְׁנֵי-כְבָשִׂים” (במדבר כח,ט). 41  To offer an additional sacrifice every Sabbath, as it is written “and on the Sabbath day, two he-lambs” (Numbers 28,9).
מב  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּכָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְחֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבְרָאשֵׁי, חָדְשֵׁיכֶם” (במדבר כח,יא). 42  To offer an additional sacrifice at the beginning of each new month, as it is written “and in your new moons” (Numbers 28,11).
מג  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּחַג הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, תַּקְרִיבוּ אִשֶּׁה לַה'” (ויקרא כג,לו). 43  To offer an additional sacrifice during the Festival of Pesach, as it is written “seven days ye shall bring an offering made by fire” (Leviticus 23,36).
מד  לְהַקְרִיב מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר מִמָּחֳרַת רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלַּפֶּסַח עִם כֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת-עֹמֶר” (ויקרא כג,י). 44  To bring the meal offering of the Omer on the day after the first day of Pesach together with one lamb, as it is written “then ye shall bring an Omer” (Leviticus 23,10).
מה  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּיוֹם עֲצֶרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבְיוֹם הַבִּכּוּרִים . . . וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עוֹלָה” (במדבר כח,כו-כז). 45  To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Shavu`ot, as it is written “and in the day of the first-fruits . . . and ye shall present a burnt-offering” (Numbers 28,26-27).
מו  לְהָבִיא שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם עִם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הַקְּרֵבִין בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם בְּיוֹם עֲצֶרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאּוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה . . . וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עַל-הַלֶּחֶם” (ויקרא כג,יז-יח). 46  To bring two loaves of bread together with the sacrifices that are offered because of the loaves on the Festival of Shavu`ot, as it is written “ye shall bring out of your dwelling places wave loaves . . . and ye shall present sacrifices with the bread” (Leviticus 23,17-18).
מז  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ . . . וַעֲשִׂיתֶם עֹלָה” (במדבר כט,א-ב). 47  To offer an additional sacrifice on Rosh Hashanah, as it is written “and in the seventh month, on the first day of the month . . . and ye shall prepare a burnt-offering” (Numbers 29,1-2).
מח  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּיוֹם הַצּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי . . .” (במדבר כט,ז). 48  To offer an additional sacrifice on the Day of the Fast, as it is written “and on the tenth day of this seventh month . . .” (Numbers 29,7).
מט  לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם בְּיוֹם הַצּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן . . . וּמֵאֵת, עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל” (ויקרא טז,ג-ה), וְכָל הָעֲבוֹדָה הַכְּתוּבָה בְּפָרָשַׁת “אַחֲרֵי מוֹת” (ויקרא טז,א). 49  To do the service of the day on the Day of the Fast, as it is written “with this shall Aharon come . . . and of the congregation of the Children of Israel” (Leviticus 16,3-5), and the whole service as described in the portion for “after the death” (Leviticus Chapter 16).
נ  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה . . .” (במדבר כט,יג). 50  To offer an additional sacrifice on the Festival of Sukkot, as it is written “and ye shall present a burnt-offering . . .” (Numbers 29,13).
נא  לְהוֹסִיף קָרְבָּן בְּיוֹם שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת, שֶׁיּוֹם זֶה רֶגֶל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּיּוֹם, הַשְּׁמִינִי–עֲצֶרֶת” (במדבר כט,לה). 51  To offer an additional sacrifice on the day of Shemini Atzeret, for this day is a pilgrimage festival in itself, as it is written “on the eighth day, a solemn assembly” (Numbers 29,35).
נב  לָחֹג בָּרְגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שָׁלֹשׁ רְגָלִים, תָּחֹג לִי” (שמות כג,יד). 52  To celebrate on the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written “three times thou shalt keep a feast unto Me” (Exodus 23,14).
נג  לְהֵרָאוֹת בָּרְגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, בַּשָּׁנָה–יֵרָאֶה, כָּל-זְכוּרְךָ” (שמות כג,יז; שמות לד,כג; דברים טז,טז). 53  To appear on the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written “three times in the year shall all thy males appear” (Exodus 23,17; Exodus 34,23; Deuteronomy 16,16).
נד  לִשְׂמֹחַ בָּרְגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשָׂמַחְתָּ, בְּחַגֶּךָ” (דברים טז,יד). 54  To rejoice during the pilgrimage festivals, as it is written “and thou shalt rejoice in thy feast” (Deuteronomy 16,14).
נה  לִשְׁחֹט כֶּבֶשׂ הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ, כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת-יִשְׂרָאֵל” (שמות יב,ו). 55  To slaughter the Pesach lamb, as it is written “and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it” (Exodus 12,6).
נו  לֶאֱכֹל בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח בְּלֵיל חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָכְלוּ אֶת-הַבָּשָׂר, בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה” (שמות יב,ח). 56  To eat the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice on the night of the Fifteenth, as it is written “and they shall eat the flesh in that night” (Exodus 12,8).
נז  לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר” (במדבר ט,יא). 57  To keep the second Pesach, as it is written “in the second month on the fourteenth day” (Numbers 9,11).
נח  לֶאֱכֹל פֶּסַח בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “עַל-מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים, יֹאכְלֻהוּ” (במדבר ט,יא). 58  To eat the Pesach sacrifice then, as it is written “they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs” (Numbers 9,11).
נט  לִתְקֹעַ בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת עַל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת וּבְשָׁעַת הַצָּרוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּחֲצֹצְרֹת” (במדבר י,י). 59  To sound the trumpets over sacrifices and in times of troubles, as it is written “ye shall blow with the trumpets” (Numbers 10,10).
ס  לִהְיוֹת כָּל קָרְבָּנוֹת בְּהֵמָה מִיּוֹם שְׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי, וָהָלְאָה” (ויקרא כב,כז). 60  To bring sacrifices of animals when they are eight days old or older, as it is written “and from the eighth day and thenceforth” (Leviticus 22,27).
סא  לִהְיוֹת כָּל קָרְבָּן בְּהֵמָה תָּמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן” (ויקרא כב,כא). 61  For every animal offered to be perfect, as it is written “it shall be perfect to be accepted” (Leviticus 22,21).
סב  לִמְלֹחַ כָּל קָרְבָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “עַל כָּל-קָרְבָּנְךָ, תַּקְרִיב מֶלַח” (ויקרא ב,יג). 62  To salt every sacrifice, as it is written “with all thy offerings thou shalt offer salt” (Leviticus 2,13).
סג  מַעֲשֵׂה הָעוֹלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אִם-עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ” (ויקרא א,ג). 63  The procedure for the burnt offering, as it is written “if his offering be a burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1,3).
סד  מַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת” (ויקרא ו,יח). 64  The procedure for the sin offering, as it is written “this is the law of the sin-offering” (Leviticus 6,18).
סה  מַעֲשֵׂה הָאָשָׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֹאת תּוֹרַת, הָאָשָׁם” (ויקרא ז,א). 65  The procedure for the guilt offering, as it is written “this is the law of the guilt-offering” (Leviticus 7,1).
סו  מַעֲשֵׂה זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת, זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים” (ויקרא ז,יא). 66  The procedure for the peace offering, as it is written “and this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings” (Leviticus 7,11).
סז  מַעֲשֵׂה הַמִּנְחָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְנֶפֶשׁ, כִּי-תַקְרִיב קָרְבַּן מִנְחָה” (ויקרא ב,א). 67  The procedure for the meal offering, as it is written “and when any one bringeth a meal-offering” (Leviticus 2,1).
סח  לְהַקְרִיב בֵּית דִּין קָרְבָּן אִם טָעוּ בַּהוֹרָאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִם כָּל-עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׁגּוּ” (ויקרא ד,יג). 68  For the Great Rabbinical Court to offer a sacrifice, if they have erred in instruction, as it is written “and if the whole congregation of Israel shall err” (Leviticus 4,13).
סט  לְהַקְרִיב הַיָּחִיד קָרְבַּן חַטָּאת אִם שָׁגַג בְּמִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כָּרֵת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “נֶפֶשׁ כִּי-תֶחֱטָא” (ויקרא ה,א). 69  For an individual to bring a sin offering, if he has sinned unintentionally in a negative commandment punishable by excision, as it is written “if any one sin” (Leviticus 5,1).
ע  לְהַקְרִיב הַיָּחִיד קָרְבָּן אִם נִסְתַּפַּק לוֹ אִם חָטָא בְּחֵטְא שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו חַטָּאת אוֹ לֹא חָטָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְלֹא-יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם . . . וְהֵבִיא אֶת-אֲשָׁמוֹ” (ראה ויקרא ה,יז-יח); וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. 70  For an individual to bring an offering, if he is in doubt as to whether he has committed a sin for which one brings a sin offering or not, as it is written “though he know it not, yet is he guilty . . . and he shall bring his guilt-offering” (see Leviticus 5,17-18); this is called a conditional guilt offering.
עא  לְהַקְרִיב הַשּׁוֹגֵג בִּמְעִילָה, אוֹ הַחוֹטֶא בִּגְזֵלָה, אוֹ בְּשִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה, אוֹ שֶׁכָּפַר בַּפִּקָּדוֹן וְנִשְׁבַּע, קָרְבַּן אָשָׁם; וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם וַדַּאי. 71  For one who has unintentionally benefited from consecrated things, or sinned in robbery or with a bondmaid betrothed to another, or denied what was deposited with him and swore falsely, to bring a guilt offering; and this is called an unconditional guilt offering.
עב  לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבַּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִם-לֹא תַגִּיעַ יָדוֹ” (ויקרא ה,ז), “וְאִם-לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ” (ויקרא ה,יא). 72  To offer a sacrifice according to means, as it is written “and if his means suffice not” (Leviticus 5,7), “but if his means suffice not” (Leviticus 5,11).
עג  לְהִתְוַדּוֹת לִפְנֵי ה’ מִכָּל חֵטְא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם, בְּשָׁעַת הַקָּרְבָּן וְשֶׁלֹּא בְּשָׁעַת הַקָּרְבָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהִתְוַדּוּ, אֶת-חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ” (במדבר ה,ז). 73  To confess before the LORD for any sin that one has committed, whether bringing a sacrifice or not bringing a sacrifice, as it is written “they shall confess their sin which they have done” (Numbers 5,7).
עד  לְהַקְרִיב הַזָּב קָרְבָּן אַחַר שֶׁיִּטְהַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-יִטְהַר הַזָּב . . .” (ויקרא טו,יג). 74  For a man having an unclean issue to bring a sacrifice after he becomes clean, as it is written “and when he that hath an issue is cleansed . . .” (Leviticus 15,13).
עה  לְהַקְרִיב הַזָּבָה קָרְבָּן אַחַר שֶׁתִּטְהַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִם-טָהֲרָה, מִזּוֹבָהּ” (ויקרא טו,כח). 75  For a woman having an unclean issue to bring a sacrifice after she becomes clean, as it is written “and if she be cleansed of her issue” (Leviticus 15,28).
עו  לְהַקְרִיב הַיּוֹלֶדֶת קָרְבָּן אַחַר שֶׁתִּטְהַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ” (ויקרא יב,ו). 76  For a woman after childbirth to bring a sacrifice after she becomes clean, as it is written “and when the days of her purification are fulfilled” (Leviticus 12,6).
עז  לְהַקְרִיב הַמְּצֹרָע קָרְבָּן אַחַר שֶׁיִּטְהַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי” (ויקרא יד,י). 77  For a leper to bring a sacrifice after he becomes clean, as it is written “and on the eighth day” (Leviticus 14,10).
עח  לְעַשַּׂר הַבְּהֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכָל-מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן” (ויקרא כז,לב). 78  To tithe animals, as it is written “and all the tithe of the herd or the flock” (Leviticus 27,32).
עט  לְקַדַּשׁ בְּכוֹר הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּלְהַקְרִיבוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כָּל-הַבְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר יִוָּלֵד” (דברים טו,יט). 79  To sanctify the first-born of clean animals and bring it as a sacrifice, as it is written “all the firstling males that are born” (Deuteronomy 15,19).
פ  לִפְדּוֹת בְּכוֹר אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה, אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם” (במדבר יח,טו). 80  To redeem the first-born of man, as it is written “howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem” (Numbers 18,15).
פא  לִפְדּוֹת פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה” (שמות לד,כ). 81  To redeem the first-born of an ass, as it is written “and the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb” (Exodus 34,20).
פב  לַעֲרֹף פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִם-לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ” (שמות יג,יג; שמות לד,כ). 82  To decapitate the first-born of an ass, as it is written “and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck” (Exodus 13,13; Exodus 34,20).
פג  לְהָבִיא כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עַל הָאָדָם בְּחוֹבָה אוֹ בִּנְדָבָה בְּרֶגֶל רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁפָּגַע בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבָאתָ שָּׁמָּה.  וַהֲבֵאתֶם שָׁמָּה” (דברים יב,ה-ו). 83  To bring all of a person’s sacrifices, whether obligatory or voluntary, on the first pilgrimage festival that comes, as it is written “and thither thou shalt come; and thither ye shall bring” (Deuteronomy 12,5-6).
פד  לְהַקְרִיב כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בְּבֵית הַבְּחִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשָׁם תַּעֲשֶׂה, כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּךָּ” (דברים יב,יד). 84  To offer all sacrifices in the Sanctuary, as it is written “and there shalt thou do all that I command thee” (Deuteronomy 12,14).
פה  לְהִטַּפַּל בַּהֲבָאַת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת מֵחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ לְבֵית הַבְּחִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “רַק קָדָשֶׁיךָ אֲשֶׁר-יִהְיוּ לְךָ, וּנְדָרֶיךָ, תִּשָּׂא וּבָאתָ” (דברים יב,כו); מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שְׁאֵינוּ מְדַבֵּר אֵלָא בְּקָדְשֵׁי חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. 85  To take the trouble to bring sacrifices to the Sanctuary from outside the Land of Israel, as it is written “only thy holy things which thou hast, and thy vows, thou shalt take and come” (Deuteronomy 12,26); it was learned from the oral tradition that this specifically refers to sacrifices from outside the Land of Israel.
פו  לִפְדּוֹת קֳדָשִׁים בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין וְיִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “רַק בְּכָל-אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר” (דברים יב,טו); מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שְׁאֵינוּ מְדַבֵּר אֵלָא בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין שֶׁיִּפָּדוּ. 86  To redeem consecrated animals that have disqualifying blemishes, and then they may be eaten, as it is written “notwithstanding thou mayest slaughter and eat flesh, after all the desire of thy soul” (Deuteronomy 12,15); it was learned from the oral tradition that this specifically refers to consecrated animals that have become unfit that shall be redeemed.
פז  לִהְיוֹת הַתְּמוּרָה קֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָיָה-הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה-קֹּדֶשׁ” (ויקרא כז,י; ויקרא כז,לג). 87  For an animal substituted for one consecrated for sacrifice to be holy, as it is written “then both it and that for which it is changed shall be holy” (Leviticus 27,10; Leviticus 27,33).
פח  לֶאֱכֹל שְׁיַרֵי מְנָחוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִמֶּנָּה, יֹאכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו” (ויקרא ו,ט). 88  To eat the remainder of meal offerings, as it is written “and that which is left thereof shall Aharon and his sons eat” (Leviticus 6,9).
פט  לֶאֱכֹל בְּשַׂר חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָכְלוּ אֹתָם אֲשֶׁר כֻּפַּר בָּהֶם” (שמות כט,לג). 89  To eat the flesh of a sin offering and guilt offering, as it is written “and they shall eat those things wherewith atonement was made” (Exodus 29,33).
צ  לִשְׂרֹף בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנִּטְמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר-יִגַּע בְּכָל-טָמֵא” (ויקרא ז,יט). 90  To burn the flesh of a sacrifice that has become unclean, as it is written “and the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing” (Leviticus 7,19).
צא  לִשְׂרֹף נוֹתָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַנּוֹתָר, מִבְּשַׂר הַזָּבַח–בַּיּוֹם, הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בָּאֵשׁ, יִשָּׂרֵף” (ויקרא ז,יז). 91  To burn the flesh of a sacrifice that has been left over, as it is written “but that which remaineth of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire” (Leviticus 7,17).
צב  לְגַדַּל הַנָּזִיר שְׂעָרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “גַּדֵּל פֶּרַע, שְׂעַר רֹאשׁוֹ” (במדבר ו,ה). 92  For the Nazarite to let his hair grow, as it is written “he shall let the hair of his head grow long” (Numbers 6,5).
צג  לְגַלַּח הַנָּזִיר שְׂעָרוֹ עַל קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו בִּמְלֹאת יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ, אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ אִם נִטְמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-יָמוּת מֵת עָלָיו” (במדבר ו,ט). 93  For the Nazarite to shave his hair when he brings his sacrifices at the completion of his Nazariteship, or within his Nazariteship if he has become unclean, as it is written “and if any man die beside him” (Numbers 6,9).
צד  לְקַיַּם אָדָם כָּל שֶׁהוֹצִיא בִּשְׂפָתָיו, מִקָּרְבָּן אוֹ צְדָקָה וְכַיּוֹצֶא בָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ, תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ” (דברים כג,כד). 94  For a person to fulfill whatever he has uttered, whether a sacrifice or charity and the like, as it is written “that which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do” (Deuteronomy 23,24).
צה  לָדוּן בַּהֲפֵר נְדָרִים בְּכָל הַדִּינִין הָאֲמוּרִין בַּפָּרָשָׁה. 95  To judge in annulment of vows according to all of the rules in the matter.
צו  לִהְיוֹת כָּל נוֹגֵעַ בַּנְּבֵלָה טָמֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי יָמוּת מִן-הַבְּהֵמָה” (ויקרא יא,לט). 96  For one who touches the carcass of a beast that died without slaughtering to be unclean, as it is written “and if any beast die” (Leviticus 11,39).
צז  לִהְיוֹת שְׁמוֹנָה שְׁרָצִים מְטַמְּאִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא” (ויקרא יא,כט). 97  For eight specific species of creeping things to defile, as it is written “and these are they which are unclean unto you” (Leviticus 11,29).
צח  לִהְיוֹת הָאֹכָלִין מִטַּמְּאִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מִכָּל-הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל” (ויקרא יא,לד). 98  For foods to be susceptible to becoming unclean, as it is written “of all food which may be eaten” (Leviticus 11,34).
צט  לִהְיוֹת הַנִּדָּה טְמֵאָה וּמְטַמְּאָה לַאֲחֵרִים. 99  For a menstruating woman to be unclean and to defile.
ק  לִהְיוֹת הַיּוֹלֶדֶת טְמֵאָה כַּנִּדָּה. 100  For a woman after childbirth to be unclean like a menstruating woman.
קא  לִהְיוֹת הַמְּצֹרָע טָמֵא וּמְטַמֵּא. 101  For a leper to be unclean and to defile.
קב  לִהְיוֹת בֶּגֶד מְנֻגַּע טָמֵא וּמְטַמֵּא. 102  For a leprous garment to be unclean and to defile.
קג  לִהְיוֹת בַּיִת מְנֻגַּע מְטַמֵּא. 103  For a leprous house to defile.
קד  לִהְיוֹת הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא. 104  For a man having a unclean issue to defile.
קה  לִהְיוֹת שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע מְטַמְּאָה. 105  For seminal fluid to defile.
קו  לִהְיוֹת זָבָה מְטַמְּאָה. 106  For a woman having an unclean issue to defile.
קז  לִהְיוֹת הַמֵּת מְטַמֵּא. 107  For a corpse to defile.
קח  לִהְיוֹת מֵי נִדָּה מְטַמְּאִין לְאָדָם טָהוֹר, וּמְטַהֲרִין מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת בִּלְבָד.  וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַדִּינִין שֶׁלִּטְמָאוֹת אֵלּוּ, רֹב מִשְׁפָּט כָּל טֻמְאָה וְטֻמְאָה מֵהֶן מְבֹאָר בְּתוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב. 108  For the water of sprinkling to defile one who is clean, and to cleanse only those defiled by a corpse.  Most of the regulations for each of the above kinds of uncleanness are set out in the Written Torah.
קט  לִהְיוֹת הַטַּהְרָה מִכָּל הַטְּמָאוֹת בִּטְבִילָה בְּמֵי מִקְוָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת-כָּל-בְּשָׂרוֹ” (ויקרא טו,טז); כָּךְ לָמְדוּ מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה שֶׁרְחִיצָה זוֹ בְּמַיִם שֶׁכָּל גּוּפוֹ עוֹלֶה בָּהֶן בְּבַת אַחַת. 109  For purification from all kinds of uncleanness to be effected by immersion in the waters of a ritual bath, as it is written “then he shall bathe all his flesh in water” (Leviticus 15,16); so was it learned from the oral tradition, that this bath must be in enough water so that the whole body is immersed at the same time.
קי  לִהְיוֹת הַטַּהְרָה מִן הַצָּרַעַת בֵּין צָרַעַת אָדָם בֵּין צָרַעַת בַּיִת בְּעֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תּוֹלַעַת וּשְׁתֵּי צִפֳּרִים וּמַיִם חַיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע” (ויקרא יד,ב). 110  For the cleansing from leprosy, whether leprosy of a person or leprosy of a house, to be done with cedar wood, hyssop, scarlet wool, two birds, and spring water, as it is written “this shall be the law of the leper” (Leviticus 14,2).
קיא  לִהְיוֹת הַמְּצֹרָע מְגַלֵּחַ כָּל שְׂעָרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלַּח אֶת-כָּל-שְׂעָרוֹ” (ויקרא יד,ט). 111  For the leper to shave all of his hair, as it is written “and it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair” (Leviticus 14,9).
קיב  לִהְיוֹת הַמְּצֹרָע יָדוּעַ לַכֹּל בַּדְּבָרִים הָאֲמוּרִים בּוֹ, “בְּגָדָיו יִהְיוּ פְרֻמִים וְרֹאשׁוֹ יִהְיֶה פָרוּעַ, וְעַל-שָׂפָם, יַעְטֶה; וְטָמֵא טָמֵא, יִקְרָא” (ויקרא יג,מה).  וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַטְּמֵאִים צְרִיכִין לְהוֹדִיעַ אֶת עַצְמָן. 112  For the leper to be known to all by the things written about him, “his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and shall cry: ‘unclean, unclean'” (Leviticus 13,45).  So too, all other unclean persons must declare themselves.
קיג  לַעֲשׂוֹת פָּרָה אֲדֻמָּה לִהְיוֹת אֶפְרָהּ מוּכָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָיְתָה לַעֲדַת בְּנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל” (במדבר יט,ט). 113  To prepare a red heifer so that its ashes are ready, as it is written “and it shall be for the congregation of the Children of Israel” (Numbers 19,9).
קיד  לִהְיוֹת מַעְרִיךְ אָדָם נוֹתֵן דָּמִים הַקְּצוּבִין בַּפָּרָשָׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אִישׁ, כִּי יַפְלִא נֶדֶר” (ויקרא כז,ב). 114  For one who vows the value of a person to pay the amount fixed in the Torah, as it is written “when a man shall clearly utter a vow” (Leviticus 27,2).
קטו  לִהְיוֹת מַעְרִיךְ בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה נוֹתֵן דָּמֶיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת-הַבְּהֵמָה” (ויקרא כז,יא). 115  For one who vows the value of an unclean animal to pay its value, as it is written “then he shall set the beast” (Leviticus 27,11).
קטז  לִהְיוֹת מַעְרִיךְ בֵּיתוֹ נוֹתֵן כְּעֵרֶךְ הַכּוֹהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִישׁ, כִּי-יַקְדִּשׁ אֶת-בֵּיתוֹ” (ויקרא כז,יד). 116  For one who vows the value of his house to give according to the evaluation of the Priest, as it is written “and when a man shall sanctify his house” (Leviticus 27,14).
קיז  לִתֵּן מַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ עֶרְכָּהּ הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִם מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ” (ויקרא כז,טז). 117  For one who consecrates a portion of his land to give according to the amount fixed in the Torah, as it is written “if part of the field of his possession” (Leviticus 27,16).
קיח  לְהוֹסִיף הַמּוֹעֵל אוֹ אוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה חֹמֶשׁ עַל הַקֶּרֶן וּלְהַחְזִירוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן-הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם” (ויקרא ה,טז). 118  For one who unintentionally benefits from consecrated things or eats a heave offering to add a fifth onto the value and restore it, as it is written “and he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing” (Leviticus 5,16).
קיט  לִהְיוֹת נֶטַע רְבָעִי קֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “יִהְיֶה, כָּל-פִּרְיוֹ–קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים” (ויקרא יט,כד). 119  For the fruit of fruit-bearing trees in the fourth year of their planting to be holy, as it is written “all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise” (Leviticus 19,24).
קכ  לְהַנִּיחַ פֵּאָה. 120  To leave the edge of the field unharvested.
קכא  לְהַנִּיחַ לֶקֶט. 121  To leave the gleanings of the harvest.
קכב  לְהַנִּיחַ עֹמֶר הַשִּׁכְחָה. 122  To leave the forgotten sheaves.
קכג  לְהַנִּיחַ עוֹלֵלוֹת בַּכֶּרֶם. 123  To leave the gleanings in the vineyard.
קכד  לְהַנִּיחַ פֶּרֶט הַכֶּרֶם.  לְפִי שֶׁבְּכָל אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָר “לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם” (ויקרא יט,י; ויקרא כג,כב); וְזוֹ הִיא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלָּהֶם. 124  To leave the fallen grapes of the vineyard.  For on all these it is said “thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger” (Leviticus 19,10; Leviticus 23,22); that is their positive commandment.
קכה  לְהָבִיא בִּכּוּרִים לְבֵית הַבְּחִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “רֵאשִׁית, בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ” (שמות כג,יט; שמות לד,כו). 125  To bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary, as it is written “the choicest first-fruits of thy land” (Exodus 23,19; Exodus 34,26).
קכו  לְהַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה לַכּוֹהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ . . .” (דברים יח,ד). 126  To set apart a heave offering for the Priest, as it is written “the first-fruits of thy grain . . .” (Deuteronomy 18,4).
קכז  לְהַפְרִישׁ מַעְשַׂר דָּגָן לַלְּוִיִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכָל-מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ” (ויקרא כז,ל). 127  To set apart a tithe of grain for the Levites, as it is written “and all the tithe of the land” (Leviticus 27,30).
קכח  לְהַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לְהֵאָכֵל לִבְעָלָיו בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר, אֵת כָּל-תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ” (דברים יד,כב); מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה הוּא מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. 128  To set apart a second tithe to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem, as it is written “thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed” (Deuteronomy 14,22); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is the second tithe.
קכט  לִהְיוֹת הַלְּוִיִּים מַפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשֵׂר מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלָּקְחוּ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לַכּוֹהֲנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאֶל-הַלְוִיִּם תְּדַבֵּר” (במדבר יח,כו). 129  For the Levites to set apart a tithe of the tithe taken from the Israelites and to give it to the Priests, as it is written “and thou shalt speak unto the Levites” (Numbers 18,26).
קל  לְהַפְרִישׁ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי תַּחַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית וּבַשִּׁשִּׁית בַּשָּׁבוּעַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מִקְצֵה שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, תּוֹצִיא אֶת-כָּל-מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ” (דברים יד,כח). 130  To set apart a tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe in the third and sixth years of the seven year cycle, as it is written “at the end of every three years, thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase” (Deuteronomy 14,28).
קלא  לְהִתְוַדּוֹת וִדּוּי מַעֲשֵׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ” (דברים כו,יג). 131  To make the tithe declaration, as it is written “then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God, I have put away the hallowed things” (Deuteronomy 26,13).
קלב  לִקְרוֹת עַל הַבִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה’ אֱלֹהֶיךָ” (דברים כו,ה). 132  To recite the declaration on bringing the first fruits, as it is written “and thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God” (Deuteronomy 26,5).
קלג  לְהַפְרִישׁ חַלָּה לַכּוֹהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “רֵאשִׁית, עֲרִסֹתֵכֶם–חַלָּה, תָּרִימוּ” (במדבר טו,כ). 133  To set apart a portion of the dough for the Priest, as it is written “of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake” (Numbers 15,20).
קלד  לְהַשְׁמִיט קַרְקָע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ” (שמות כג,יא). 134  To let the land rest in the Sabbatical year, as it is written “but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow” (Exodus 23,11).
קלה  לִשְׁבֹּת מֵעֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בֶּחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר, תִּשְׁבֹּת” (שמות לד,כא). 135  To rest from working the land, as it is written “in plowing time and in harvest thou shalt rest” (Exodus 34,21).
קלו  לְקַדַּשׁ שְׁנַת יוֹבֵל בִּשְׁבִיתָה כַּשְּׁמִטָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם, אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים” (ויקרא כה,י). 136  To sanctify the Jubilee year by resting as in the Sabbatical year, as it is written “and ye shall hallow the fiftieth year” (Leviticus 25,10).
קלז  לִתְקֹעַ בַּשּׁוֹפָר בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה” (ויקרא כה,ט). 137  To sound the shofar in the Jubilee year, as it is written “then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn” (Leviticus 25,9).
קלח  לִתֵּן גְּאֻלָּה לָאָרֶץ בִּשְׁנַת יוֹבֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבְכֹל, אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם, גְּאֻלָּה, תִּתְּנוּ לָאָרֶץ” (ויקרא כה,כד). 138  To grant redemption to the Land in the Jubilee year, as it is written “and in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land” (Leviticus 25,24).
קלט  לִהְיוֹת גְּאֻלַּת בָּתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה עַד שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאִישׁ, כִּי-יִמְכֹּר בֵּית-מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה” (ויקרא כה,כט). 139  For houses sold within a walled city to be redeemable for a year, as it is written “and if a man sell a dwelling-house in a walled city” (Leviticus 25,29).
קמ  לִמְנוֹת שְׁנֵי יוֹבֵל שָׁנִים וּשְׁמִטִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ, שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים” (ויקרא כה,ח). 140  To count the years of the Jubilee by years and by Sabbaths of years, as it is written “and thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years” (Leviticus 25,8).
קמא  לְהַשְׁמִיט כְּסָפִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שָׁמוֹט כָּל-בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ” (דברים טו,ב). 141  To release debts in the Sabbatical year, as it is written “every creditor shall release that which he hath lent” (Deuteronomy 15,2).
קמב  לִנְגֹשׂ לַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֶת-הַנָּכְרִי, תִּגֹּשׂ; וַאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ” (דברים טו,ג). 142  To exact the debt of a Gentile, as it is written “of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is” (Deuteronomy 15,3).
קמג  לִתֵּן מִן הַבְּהֵמָה לַכּוֹהֵן הַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְנָתַן, לַכֹּהֵן, הַזְּרֹעַ” (דברים יח,ג). 143  To give to the Priest the foreleg, the jaw, and the stomach of a slaughtered animal, as it is written “and they shall give to the Priest the foreleg” (Deuteronomy 18,3).
קמד  לִתֵּן רֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז לַכּוֹהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ–תִּתֶּן-לוֹ” (דברים יח,ד). 144  To give the first of the fleece to the Priest, as it is written “and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him” (Deuteronomy 18,4).
קמה  לָדוּן בְּדִינֵי חֲרָמִים, מֵהֶם לַה’ וּמֵהֶם לַכּוֹהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אַךְ-כָּל-חֵרֶם . . .” (ויקרא כז,כח). 145  To judge in devoted property, whether to the LORD or to the Priest, as it is written “notwithstanding, no devoted thing . . .” (Leviticus 27,28).
קמו  לִשְׁחֹט בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכַל בְּשָׂרָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְזָבַחְתָּ מִבְּקָרְךָ וּמִצֹּאנְךָ” (דברים יב,כא). 146  To slaughter animals, beasts, and fowl and then eat their flesh, as it is written “thou shalt slaughter of thy herd and of thy flock” (Deuteronomy 12,21).
קמז  לְכַסּוֹת דַּם חַיָּה וָעוֹף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשָׁפַךְ, אֶת-דָּמוֹ, וְכִסָּהוּ, בֶּעָפָר” (ויקרא יז,יג). 147  To cover the blood of beasts and of fowl, as it is written “he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust” (Leviticus 17,13).
קמח  לְשַׁלַּח הַקֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת-הָאֵם, וְאֶת-הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח-לָךְ” (דברים כב,ז). 148  To set the mother bird free, as it is written “thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, but the young thou mayest take unto thyself” (Deuteronomy 22,7).
קמט  לִבְדֹּק בְּסִימָנֵי בְּהֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ” (ויקרא יא,ב). 149  To examine the identifying signs in animals, as it is written “these are the living things which ye may eat” (Leviticus 11,2).
קנ  לִבְדֹּק בְּסִימָנֵי הָעוֹף עַד שֶׁיַּבְדִּיל בֵּין טָמֵא שֶׁבּוֹ לְטָהוֹר שֶׁבּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כָּל-צִפּוֹר טְהֹרָה, תֹּאכֵלוּ” (דברים יד,יא). 150  To examine the identifying signs in fowl to distinguish between the unclean among them and the clean among them, as it is written “of all clean birds ye may eat” (Deuteronomy 14,11).
קנא  לִבְדֹּק בְּסִימָנֵי חֲגָבִים לֵידַע טָהוֹר מִן הַטָּמֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ כְרָעַיִם” (ויקרא יא,כא). 151  To examine the identifying signs in locusts to tell the clean from the unclean, as it is written “which have jointed legs” (Leviticus 11,21).
קנב  לִבְדֹּק בְּסִימָנֵי דָּגִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֶת-זֶה, תֹּאכְלוּ, מִכֹּל, אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם” (ויקרא יא,ט; דברים יד,ט). 152  To examine the identifying signs in fishes, as it is written “these may ye eat of all that are in the waters” (Leviticus 11,9; Deuteronomy 14,9).
קנג  לְקַדַּשׁ חֳדָשִׁים וּלְחַשַּׁב שָׁנִים וָחֳדָשִׁים בְּבֵית דִּין בִּלְבָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים” (שמות יב,ב). 153  To sanctify the new month and to calculate years and months in court only, as it is written “this month shall be unto you the beginning of months” (Exodus 12,2).
קנד  לִשְׁבֹּת בַּשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת” (שמות כג,יב; שמות לד,כא). 154  To rest on the Sabbath, as it is written “but on the seventh day thou shalt rest” (Exodus 23,12; Exodus 34,21).
קנה  לְקַדַּשׁ שַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ” (שמות כ,ז). 155  To hallow the Sabbath, as it is written “remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20,7).
קנו  לְבַעַר חָמֵץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם” (שמות יב,טו). 156  To get rid of leaven, as it is written “on the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses” (Exodus 12,15).
קנז  לְסַפַּר בִּיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ” (שמות יג,ח). 157  To tell the story of the Exodus from Egypt on the first night of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, as it is written “and thou shalt tell thy son” (Exodus 13,8).
קנח  לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה בְּלֵיל זֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בָּעֶרֶב, תֹּאכְלוּ, מַצֹּת” (שמות יב,יח). 158  To eat unleavened bread on this night, as it is written “at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread” (Exodus 12,18).
קנט  לִשְׁבֹּת בָּרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלַּפֶּסַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ” (שמות יב,טז). 159  To rest on the first day of Pesach, as it is written “on the first day, a holy convocation” (Exodus 12,16).
קס  לִשְׁבֹּת בַּשְּׁבִיעִי בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ” (שמות יב,טז; במדבר כח,כה). 160  To rest on its seventh day, as it is written “and on the seventh day, a holy convocation” (Exodus 12,16; Numbers 28,25).
קסא  לִסְפֹּר מִקְּצִירַת הָעֹמֶר תִּשְׁעָה וְאַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם, מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת” (ויקרא כג,טו). 161  To count forty nine days from the time of harvesting the Omer, as it is written “and ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest” (Leviticus 23,15).
קסב  לִשְׁבֹּת בְּיוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּקְרָאתֶם בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ” (ויקרא כג,כא). 162  To rest on the fiftieth day, as it is written “and ye shall make proclamation on the selfsame day; a holy convocation” (Leviticus 23,21).
קסג  לִשְׁבֹּת בָּרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלְּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם שַׁבָּתוֹן” (ויקרא כג,כד). 163  To rest on the first day of the seventh month, as it is written “on the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you” (Leviticus 23,24).
קסד  לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בָּעֲשִׂירִי בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם” (ראה ויקרא טז,כט; במדבר כט,ז). 164  To fast on its tenth day, as it is written “and on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls” (see Leviticus 16,29; Numbers 29,7).
קסה  לִשְׁבֹּת בְּיוֹם הַצּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם” (ויקרא כג,לב). 165  To rest on the day of the Fast, as it is written “it shall be unto you a Sabbath of solemn rest” (Leviticus 23,32).
קסו  לִשְׁבֹּת בָּרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ” (ויקרא כג,לה). 166  To rest on the first day of the Festival of Sukkot, as it is written “on the first day shall be a holy convocation” (Leviticus 23,35).
קסז  לִשְׁבֹּת בַּשְּׁמִינִי שֶׁלֶּחָג, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ” (ראה ויקרא כג,לו). 167  To rest on the eighth day of that festival, as it is written “and on the eighth day shall be a holy convocation” (see Leviticus 23,36).
קסח  לֵישֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים” (ויקרא כג,מב). 168  To dwell in sukkot seven days, as it is written “ye shall dwell in booths seven days” (Leviticus 23,42).
קסט  לִטֹּל לוֹלָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר” (ויקרא כג,מ). 169  To take up a lolav, as it is written “and ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees” (Leviticus 23,40).
קע  לִשְׁמֹעַ קוֹל שׁוֹפָר בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “יוֹם תְּרוּעָה, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם” (במדבר כט,א). 170  To hear the sound of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, as it is written “it is a day of blowing the horn unto you” (Numbers 29,1).
קעא  לִתֵּן מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּכָל שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זֶה יִתְּנוּ, כָּל-הָעֹבֵר” (שמות ל,יג). 171  To give half a Sheqel every year, as it is written “this they shall give, everyone that passeth” (Exodus 30,13).
קעב  לִשְׁמֹעַ מִכָּל נָבִיא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר אִם לֹא יוֹסִיף וְלֹא יִגְרַע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֵלָיו, תִּשְׁמָעוּן” (דברים יח,טו). 172  To obey every prophet in each generation provided he neither adds to nor takes away from the Torah, as it is written “unto him ye shall hearken” (Deuteronomy 18,15).
קעג  לְמַנּוֹת מֶלֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ” (דברים יז,טו). 173  To appoint a king, as it is written “thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee” (Deuteronomy 17,15).
קעד  לִשְׁמֹעַ מִכָּל בֵּית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעַל-הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר-יֹאמְרוּ לְךָ–תַּעֲשֶׂה” (דברים יז,יא). 174  To obey every Great Rabbinical Court established for Israel, as it is written “and according to the judgment which they tell thee, thou shalt do” (Deuteronomy 17,11).
קעה  לִנְטוֹת אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים אִם תִּהְיֶה מַחְלֹקֶת בֵּין הַסַּנְהֶדְּרִין בַּדִּינִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים–לְהַטֹּת” (שמות כג,ב). 175  To give decisions according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion in the Sanhedrin in matters of judgment, as it is written “to incline after a multitude” (Exodus 23,2).
קעו  לְמַנּוֹת שׁוֹפְטִים וְשׁוֹטְרִים בְּכָל קָהָל וְקָהָל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “שֹׁפְטִים וְשֹׁטְרִים, תִּתֶּן-לְךָ” (דברים טז,יח). 176  To appoint judges and officers in each and every community of the Land of Israel, as it is written “judges and officers shalt thou make thee” (Deuteronomy 16,18).
קעז  לְהַשְׁווֹת בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בְּצֶדֶק, תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ” (ויקרא יט,טו). 177  To treat parties in a judgment impartially, as it is written “in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour” (Leviticus 19,15).
קעח  לְהָעִיד בְּבֵית דִּין לְמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עֵדוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהוּא עֵד, אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע” (ויקרא ה,א). 178  For one who has evidence to testify in court, as it is written “he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known” (Leviticus 5,1).
קעט  לַחְקֹר הָעֵדִים הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ, הֵיטֵב” (דברים יג,טו). 179  To examine the witnesses thoroughly, as it is written “then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently” (Deuteronomy 13,15).
קפ  לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעֵדִים זוֹמְמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁדִּמּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לוֹ, כַּאֲשֶׁר זָמַם” (דברים יט,יט). 180  To do to false witnesses as they had plotted to do, as it is written “then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do” (Deuteronomy 19,19).
קפא  לַעֲרֹף אֶת הָעֶגְלָה כְּמִצְוָתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָרְפוּ-שָׁם אֶת-הָעֶגְלָה, בַּנָּחַל” (דברים כא,ד). 181  To decapitate the heifer as commanded, as it is written “and they shall break the heifer’s neck there in the valley” (Deuteronomy 21,4).
קפב  לְהָכִין שֵׁשׁ עָרֵי מִקְלָט, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “תָּכִין לְךָ, הַדֶּרֶךְ, וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ אֶת-גְּבוּל אַרְצְךָ” (דברים יט,ג). 182  To prepare six cities of refuge, as it is written “thou shalt prepare thee the way, and divide the borders of thy land into three parts” (Deuteronomy 19,3).
קפג  לָתֵת לַלְּוִיִּים עָרִים לָשֶׁבֶת, וְגַם הֶם קוֹלְטוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְנָתְנוּ לַלְוִיִּם . . . עָרִים” (במדבר לה,ב). 183  To give the Levites cities to dwell in, and these too serve as cities of refuge, as it is written “that they give unto the Levites . . . cities” (Numbers 35,2).
קפד  לַעֲשׂוֹת מַעֲקֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָשִׂיתָ מַעֲקֶה לְגַגֶּךָ” (דברים כב,ח). 184  To make a parapet, as it is written “thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof” (Deuteronomy 22,8).
קפה  לְאַבַּד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְכָל מְשַׁמְּשֶׁיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אַבֵּד תְּאַבְּדוּן אֶת-כָּל-הַמְּקֹמוֹת” (דברים יב,ב). 185  To destroy any object of idolatry and all its appurtenances, as it is written “ye shall surely destroy all the places” (Deuteronomy 12,2).
קפו  לַהֲרֹג אַנְשֵׁי עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת וְלִשְׂרֹף אֶת הָעִיר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ . . .” (דברים יג,יז). 186  To kill the inhabitants of a city that has been proselytized over to idolatry and to burn the city, as it is written “and shalt burn with fire . . .” (Deuteronomy 13,17).
קפז  לְאַבַּד שִׁבְעָה עֲמָמִים מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִימֵם” (דברים כ,יז). 187  To destroy the seven Canaanite nations from the Land of Israel, as it is written “thou shalt utterly destroy them” (Deuteronomy 20,17).
קפח  לְהַכְרִית זַרְעוֹ שֶׁלַּעֲמָלֵק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “תִּמְחֶה אֶת-זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק” (דברים כה,יט). 188  To completely destroy the seed of Amalek, as it is written “thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek” (Deuteronomy 25,19).
קפט  לִזְכֹּר מַה שֶׁעָשָׂה עֲמָלֵק תָּמִיד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “זָכוֹר, אֵת אֲשֶׁר-עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק” (דברים כה,יז). 189  To perpetually remember what Amalek did, as it is written “remember what Amalek did unto thee” (Deuteronomy 25,17).
קצ  לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּמִלְחֶמֶת הָרְשׁוּת כַּמִּשְׁפָּט הַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-תִקְרַב אֶל-עִיר” (דברים כ,י). 190  To wage a voluntary war according to the law written in the Torah, as it is written “when thou drawest nigh unto a city” (Deuteronomy 20,10).
קצא  לִמְשֹׁחַ כּוֹהֵן לַמִּלְחָמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהָיָה, כְּקָרָבְכֶם אֶל-הַמִּלְחָמָה; וְנִגַּשׁ הַכֹּהֵן” (דברים כ,ב). 191  To anoint a Priest for war, as it is written “and it shall be, when ye draw nigh unto the battle, that the Priest shall approach” (Deuteronomy 20,2).
קצב  לְהַתְקִין יָד בַּמַּחֲנֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ, מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה” (דברים כג,יג). 192  To prepare a place outside the camp for a latrine, as it is written “thou shalt have a place also without the camp” (Deuteronomy 23,13).
קצג  לְהַתְקִין יָתֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ, עַל-אֲזֵנֶךָ” (דברים כג,יד). 193  To prepare a stake for digging, as it is written “and thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons” (Deuteronomy 23,14).
קצד  לְהָשִׁיב אֶת הַגָּזֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת-הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל” (ויקרא ה,כג). 194  To restore that which one took by robbery, as it is written “he shall restore that which he took by robbery” (Leviticus 5,23).
קצה  לִתֵּן צְדָקָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “פָּתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת-יָדְךָ” (דברים טו,ח; דברים טו,יא). 195  To give charity, as it is written “thou shalt surely open thy hand” (Deuteronomy 15,8; Deuteronomy 15,11).
קצו  לְהַעְנִיק לְעֶבֶד עִבְרִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק, לוֹ” (דברים טו,יד); וְכֵן לְאָמָה עִבְרִיָּה. 196  To give gifts to a Hebrew bondman, as it is written “thou shalt furnish him liberally” (Deuteronomy 15,14); and similarly, to a Hebrew bondmaid.
קצז  לְהַלְווֹת לֶעָנִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אִם-כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת-עַמִּי, אֶת-הֶעָנִי” (שמות כב,כד); “אִם” זֶה אֵינוּ רְשׁוּת אֵלָא מִצְוָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהַעֲבֵט, תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ” (דברים טו,ח). 197  To lend to the poor, as it is written “if thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor” (Exodus 22,24); “if” here is not permissive but obligatory, as it is written “and shalt surely lend him” (Deuteronomy 15,8).
קצח  לְהַלְווֹת לַנָּכְרִי בְּרִבִּית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “לַנָּכְרִי תַשִּׁיךְ” (דברים כג,כא); מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. 198  To lend to a Gentile at interest, as it is written “unto a foreigner, lend upon interest” (Deuteronomy 23,21); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is a positive commandment.
קצט  לְהָשִׁיב הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן לִבְעָלָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הָשֵׁב תָּשִׁיב לוֹ אֶת-הַעֲבוֹט” (דברים כד,יג). 199  To return a pledge to its owner, as it is written “thou shalt surely restore to him the pledge” (Deuteronomy 24,13).
ר  לִתֵּן שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר בִּזְמַנּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ” (דברים כד,טו). 200  To pay a hired worker’s wages on time, as it is written “in the same day thou shalt give him his hire” (Deuteronomy 24,15).
רא  לִהְיוֹת הַשָּׂכִיר אוֹכֵל בִּזְמָן שְׂכִירוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי תָבֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ . . . כִּי תָבֹא בְּקָמַת רֵעֶךָ” (דברים כג,כה-כו). 201  For the hired worker to be permitted to eat while working, as it is written “when thou comest into thy neighbour’s vineyard . . . when thou comest into thy neighbour’s standing corn” (Deuteronomy 23,25-26).
רב  לַעֲזֹב מֵעַל חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ מֵעַל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב, עִמּוֹ” (שמות כג,ה). 202  To help another unload his burden or his beast’s burden, as it is written “thou shalt surely release it with him” (Exodus 23,5).
רג  לְהָקִים הַמַּשָּׂא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הָקֵם תָּקִים, עִמּוֹ” (דברים כב,ד). 203  To help in reloading the beast, as it is written “thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again” (Deuteronomy 22,4).
רד  לְהָשִׁיב הָאֲבֵדָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם, לְאָחִיךָ” (דברים כב,א). 204  To return lost property, as it is written “thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother” (Deuteronomy 22,1).
רה  לְהוֹכִיחַ הַחוֹטֶא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת-עֲמִיתֶךָ” (ויקרא יט,יז). 205  To rebuke the sinner, as it is written “thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour” (Leviticus 19,17).
רו  לֶאֱהֹב כָּל אָדָם מִבְּנֵי בְּרִית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ” (ויקרא יט,יח). 206  To love all persons of the Covenant, as it is written “thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself” (Leviticus 19,18).
רז  לֶאֱהֹב אֶת הַגֵּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וַאֲהַבְתֶּם, אֶת-הַגֵּר” (דברים י,יט). 207  To love the convert, as it is written “love ye the stranger” (Deuteronomy 10,19).
רח  לְצַדַּק מֹאזְנַיִם עִם הַמִּשְׁקָלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי-צֶדֶק” (ויקרא יט,לו). 208  To ensure that scales and weights are correct, as it is written “just balances, just weights” (Leviticus 19,36).
רט  לְכַבַּד הַחֲכָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם” (ויקרא יט,לב). 209  To honor the wise, as it is written “thou shalt rise up before the hoary head” (Leviticus 19,32).
רי  לְכַבַּד אָב וָאֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כַּבֵּד אֶת-אָבִיךָ, וְאֶת-אִמֶּךָ” (שמות כ,יא; דברים ה,טו). 210  To honor one’s father and mother, as it is written “honour thy father and thy mother” (Exodus 20,11;Deuteronomy 5,15).
ריא  לְיִרְאָה מֵאָב וָאֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ” (ויקרא יט,ג). 211  To fear one’s father and mother, as it is written “ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father” (Leviticus 19,3).
ריב  לִפְרוֹת וְלִרְבּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ” (בראשית ט,ז). 212  To be fruitful and multiply, as it is written “be ye fruitful, and multiply” (Genesis 9,7).
ריג  לִבְעֹל בְּקִדּוּשִׁין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יִקַּח אִישׁ, אִשָּׁה; וּבָא אֵלֶיהָ” (דברים כב,יג; וראה דברים כד,א). 213  To take a wife by marriage ceremony, as it is written “if any man take a wife, and go in unto her” (Deuteronomy 22,13; and see Deuteronomy 24,1).
ריד  לְשַׂמַּח חָתָן אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “נָקִי יִהְיֶה לְבֵיתוֹ, שָׁנָה אֶחָת” (דברים כד,ה). 214  For a newly married husband to gladden his wife one year, as it is written “he shall be free for his house one year” (Deuteronomy 24,5).
רטו  לָמוּל אֶת הַבֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּבַיּוֹם, הַשְּׁמִינִי, יִמּוֹל, בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ” (ויקרא יב,ג). 215  To circumcise the son, as it is written “and on the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised” (Leviticus 12,3).
רטז  לְיַבַּם אֵשֶׁת אָח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ” (דברים כה,ה). 216  To marry the widow of a brother who has died childless, as it is written “her husband’s brother shall go in unto her” (Deuteronomy 25,5).
ריז  לַחְלֹץ לַיָּבָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ” (דברים כה,ט). 217  For the widow to formally release the brother-in-law, as it is written “and loose his shoe from off his foot” (Deuteronomy 25,9).
ריח  לִשָּׂא אוֹנֵס אֶת אֲנוּסָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְלוֹ-תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה” (דברים כב,כט). 218  For the rapist to marry his victim, as it is written “and she shall be his wife” (Deuteronomy 22,29).
ריט  לֵישֵׁב מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע עִם אִשְׁתּוֹ כָּל יָמָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְלוֹ-תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה” (דברים כב,יט). 219  For one who defames his wife as a non-virgin at marriage to live with her all his days, as it is written “and she shall be his wife” (Deuteronomy 22,19).
רכ  לָדוּן בִּמְפַתֶּה בַּחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל עִם שְׁאָר דִּינָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יְפַתֶּה אִישׁ” (שמות כב,טו). 220  To judge the seducer with a penalty of fifty Sheqels and the rest of the rules for him, as it is written “if a man entice” (Exodus 22,15).
רכא  לַעֲשׂוֹת לִיפַת תֹּאַר כַּכָּתוּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְרָאִיתָ, בַּשִּׁבְיָה” (דברים כא,יא). 221  To deal with a beautiful woman taken captive in war as prescribed in the Torah, as it is written “and seest amongst the captives” (Deuteronomy 21,11).
רכב  לְגָרַשׁ בַּשְּׁטָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ” (דברים כד,א; דברים כד,ג). 222  To divorce by a written document, as it is written “that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand” (Deuteronomy 24,1; Deuteronomy 24,3).
רכג  לַעֲשׂוֹת לַסּוֹטָה כְּתוֹרָתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן, אֵת כָּל-הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת” (במדבר ה,ל). 223  To deal with a woman suspected of adultery as prescribed in the Torah, as it is written “and the Priest shall execute upon her all this law” (Numbers 5,30).
רכד  לְהַלְקוֹת הָרְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ” (דברים כה,ב). 224  To whip the wicked, as it is written “that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten” (Deuteronomy 25,2).
רכה  לְהַגְלוֹת רוֹצֵחַ בִּשְׁגָגָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְיָשַׁב שָׁם, עַד-מוֹת הַכֹּהֵן” (ראה במדבר לה,כה). 225  To exile one who committed an accidental homicide, as it is written “and he shall dwell there until the death of the Priest” (see Numbers 35,25).
רכו  לִהְיוֹת בֵּית דִּין הוֹרְגִין בְּסַיִף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “נָקֹם, יִנָּקֵם” (שמות כא,כ). 226  For a court to execute by decapitation with a sword, as it is written “he shall surely be avenged” (Exodus 21,20).
רכז  לִהְיוֹת בֵּית דִּין הוֹרְגִין בְּחָנֵק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “מוֹת-יוּמַת הַנֹּאֵף, וְהַנֹּאָפֶת” (ויקרא כ,י). 227  For a court to execute by strangulation, as it is written “both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death” (Leviticus 20,10).
רכח  לִהְיוֹת בֵּית דִּין שׂוֹרְפִין בְּאֵשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “בָּאֵשׁ יִשְׂרְפוּ אֹתוֹ, וְאֶתְהֶן” (ויקרא כ,יד). 228  For a court to execute by burning, as it is written “they shall be burnt with fire, both he and they” (Leviticus 20,14).
רכט  לִהְיוֹת בֵּית דִּין סוֹקְלִין בַּאֲבָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם” (דברים כב,כד). 229  For a court to execute by stoning, as it is written “and ye shall stone them” (Deuteronomy 22,24).
רל  לִתְלוֹת מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיַּב תְּלִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ, עַל-עֵץ” (דברים כא,כב). 230  To hang the corpse of one who requires hanging, as it is written “and thou hang him on a tree” (Deuteronomy 21,22).
רלא  לִקְבֹּר הַנֶּהְרָג בְּיוֹמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא” (דברים כא,כג). 231  To bury the executed on the same day, as it is written “but thou shalt surely bury him the same day” (Deuteronomy 21,23).
רלב  לָדוּן בְּעֶבֶד עִבְרִי כְּהִלְכּוֹתָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי” (שמות כא,ב). 232  To deal with a Hebrew bondman according to the laws for him, as it is written “if thou buy a Hebrew servant” (Exodus 21,2).
רלג  לְיַעַד אָמָה עִבְרִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ יְעָדָהּ . . . וְאִם-לִבְנוֹ, יִיעָדֶנָּה” (שמות כא,ח-ט). 233  To betroth a Hebrew bondmaid, as it is written “who hath espoused her to himself . . . and if he espouse her unto his son” (Exodus 21,8-9).
רלד  לִפְדּוֹת אָמָה עִבְרִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְהֶפְדָּהּ” (שמות כא,ח). 234  To redeem a Hebrew bondmaid, as it is written “then shall he let her be redeemed” (Exodus 21,8).
רלה  לַעֲבֹד בְּעֶבֶד כְּנַעֲנִי לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “לְעֹלָם, בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ” (ויקרא כה,מו). 235  To use a Canaanite slave forever, as it is written “of them may ye take your bondmen for ever” (Leviticus 25,46).
רלו  לִהְיוֹת הַחוֹבֵל מְשַׁלֵּם מָמוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-יְרִיבֻן אֲנָשִׁים–וְהִכָּה” (שמות כא,יח). 236  For one who inflicts bodily injury to pay damages, as it is written “and if men contend, and smite” (Exodus 21,18).
רלז  לָדוּן בְּנִזְקֵי בְּהֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יִגֹּף שׁוֹר-אִישׁ אֶת-שׁוֹר רֵעֵהוּ” (שמות כא,לה). 237  To judge in damage by an animal, as it is written “and if one man’s ox hurt another’s ox” (Exodus 21,35).
רלח  לָדוּן בְּנִזְקֵי הַבּוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יִפְתַּח אִישׁ בּוֹר” (שמות כא,לג). 238  To judge in damage by an uncovered pit, as it is written “if a man shall open a pit” (Exodus 21,33).
רלט  לָדוּן בַּגַּנָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין אוֹ בְּמִיתָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי יִגְנֹב” (ראה שמות כא,לז), “אִם-בַּמַּחְתֶּרֶת” (שמות כב,א), “וְגֹנֵב אִישׁ” (שמות כא,טז). 239  To judge a thief to payment of compensation or death, as it is written “and if a man steal” (see Exodus 21,37), “if breaking in” (Exodus 22,1), “and he that stealeth a man” (Exodus 21,16).
רמ  לָדוּן בְּנִזְקֵי הֶבְעֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי יַבְעֶר-אִישׁ, שָׂדֶה אוֹ-כֶרֶם” (שמות כב,ד). 240  To judge in damage by grazing, as it is written “if a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten” (Exodus 22,4).
רמא  לָדוּן בְּנִזְקֵי הָאֵשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-תֵצֵא אֵשׁ וּמָצְאָה קֹצִים” (שמות כב,ה). 241  To judge in damage by fire, as it is written “if fire break out, and catch in thorns” (Exodus 22,5).
רמב  לָדוּן בְּדִין שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל-רֵעֵהוּ כֶּסֶף אוֹ-כֵלִים” (שמות כב,ו). 242  To judge in the case of an unpaid depositary, as it is written “if a man deliver to his neighbour money or stuff” (Exodus 22,6).
רמג  לָדוּן בְּדִין נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וְשׂוֹכֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “כִּי-יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל-רֵעֵהוּ חֲמוֹר אוֹ-שׁוֹר” (שמות כב,ט). 243  To judge in the case of a paid carrier or lessee, as it is written “if a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox” (Exodus 22,9).
רמד  לָדוּן בְּדִין הַשּׁוֹאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-יִשְׁאַל אִישׁ מֵעִם רֵעֵהוּ” (שמות כב,יג). 244  To judge in the case of a borrower, as it is written “and if a man borrow aught of his neighbour” (Exodus 22,13).
רמה  לָדוּן בְּדִין מֶקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְכִי-תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר” (ויקרא כה,יד). 245  To judge in the case of purchase and sale, as it is written “and if thou sell aught” (Leviticus 25,14).
רמו  לָדוּן בְּדִין טוֹעֵן וְכוֹפֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “עַל-כָּל-דְּבַר-פֶּשַׁע” (שמות כב,ח). 246  To judge in the case between a claimant and respondent, as it is written “for every matter of trespass” (Exodus 22,8).
רמז  לְהַצִּיל הַנִּרְדָּף וְאַפִלּוּ בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָרוֹדֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “וְקַצֹּתָה, אֶת-כַּפָּהּ” (דברים כה,יב). 247  To save the pursued even at the cost of the life of the pursuer, as it is written “then thou shalt cut off her hand” (Deuteronomy 25,12).
רמח  לָדוּן בְּדִינֵי נְחָלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמָר “אִישׁ כִּי-יָמוּת, וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ . . . וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל” (במדבר כז,ח-יא). 248  To judge in cases of inheritances, as it is written “if a man die, and have no son . . . and it shall be unto the Children of Israel” (Numbers 27,8-11).