ZADOKITE DOCUMENT

Of the righteous remnant (iii, 12-iv, 6)

Howbeit, with the rest of them-that is, with those that held fast to His commandments-God ever made good His everlasting Covenant with Israel, revealing to them the hidden things concerning which Israel in general had gone astray-even His holy sabbaths and His glorious festivals, His righteous ordinances, the ways of His truth and the purposes of His will, ‘the which, if a man do, he shall live’ [Lev. 18.5]. He opened for them a well with water abounding,14 which they might dig. But them that spurned those waters He did not permit to live. And though they kept sullying themselves with human transgression and with filthy ways, and kept saying, “Tis our own concern’, yet did God with His mysterious power shrive their iniquity and forgive their transgression and build for them in Israel a firmly established House the like of which has not existed from ancient times until this day.

They that hold fast unto Him are destined for life eternal, and theirs is all mortal glory, even as God has sworn unto them by the hand of the prophet Ezekiel, saying: vibe priests and the levites and the sons of Zadok that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, these it is that shall offer unto Me the fat and the blood’ [Ezek. 44.15]. By ‘priests’ is meant those in Israel that repented and departed from the land of Judah. [By ‘levites’] is meant those that associated themselves15 with them. By ‘sons of Zadok’ is meant those elect of Israel that have been designated by name and that shall go on functioning in the last days. Behold, their names have been specified, the families into which they are to be born, the epochs in which they are to function, the full tale of their tribulations, the length of their sojourn in exile, and the precise nature of their deeds.

Derekh d’Kehilla


Derekh d’Kehilla

Sample Passages From
DEREKH D’KEHILLA
Translated from the Original Aramaic
A First Century Manuscript of the
Ancient and Holy Assembly of 
Jerusalem
Note: The titles in bold above various passages are not a part of the original text.

On the Organisation of the Holy Assembly

In every region, those in authority over you in Jerusalem shall appoint bishops, elders and deacons among you for the proper administration of the Church of Alaha throughout all the world. And let nothing take place without the notice and approval of the bishop appointed over your region.

It is the duty of all those who profess faith in Yeshua Mshikha bar Alaha to come together on each Shabbat to hear the Torah for instruction in doing what Torah teaches the people of Alaha to do with their hands and with their hearts and their mouths. The congregation should read from Torah and the Prophets and the Besura and the letters we have sent, reading parts of the Scriptures in the morning and parts of the Scriptures after the morning [[in the afternoon]]. Beginning with the head of the year should the Scriptures begin to be read by the reader or by a scribe. At the completion of the year the congregation will have read from all the Books of Mosha.

Each congregation shall have an appointed chief servant [[“rosh eved”]] among the people of the community who is trustworthy, who is not addicted to strong drink and who is not given over to the cravings of the world.

The chief servant among the community of the faithful should appoint unto the congregation qualified readers, from among the brothers and the sisters, to read from the Scriptures.

Let the brothers among you read from the Books of Mosha and the Besura and the sisters among you to read from the Prophets and the letters in which we have sent to you. The reading from the Scripture shall be in our [Aramaic/Hebrew] language and in the [local] language of the people of the congregation if they do not speak our language. And if it is seen appropriate, appoint also the children from among the sons to read. If there is a priest or a son of Aharon or the kins-people of Maran among you, let them come up first to read from Torah, but do not appoint a priest or son of Aharon or a brother or sister of Maran as a permanent reader among the people, lest pride be created within his heart and he begins to slumber in the faith and say that he is the sole teacher of the congregation. No brother shall ever claim superiority over another brother because of the colour of his skin, the tribe from which he originates, or because [the nation] of his father or his mother.

On Converts

If a man desires to enter into the community as a follower of Mshikha, let him first be examined as to his faith, and if found worthy of the Holy Bread, let him be baptised in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, according to the tradition you have been taught by Maran Yeshua. But take care that he is not an enemy in the skins of a sheep, walking within the congregation and devouring everyone he encounters. Take care that he is not appointed to the service of the congregation and its people too soon after his conversion lest he be filled with pride and lead the people astray by his actions. He must first be found worthy.

If this man who has desired to enter into your community has not been found worthy of the Holy Bread, and lacks understanding, and is unable to bear the yoke of Torah upon him, let him sit and learn from what we have previously written to you, that is, the two ways, that which leads to life and that which leads to death. Let him partake of the bread of fellowship which has been set aside for the gentiles and for those who come to you who are hungry, but who are like little children, not able to partake of the full meal of Maran.

Unity of Believers

Be at peace with those among you who have come to believe in Mshikha, but who are unable to take upon themselves the full yoke of Torah, for what man is able to bear the full yoke and not sin? Let him therefore learn the faith of Mshikha and then let him learn of the Torah of Alaha. All those who have come to believe in Maran Yeshua Mshikha bar Alaha are united in one body and in one faith and are guided by Holy Spirit, and are all brethren in one fellowship. The Church which has been appointed at Jerusalem by the hand of Alaha is the foundation and pillar of the truth and those appointed to her care are guided by Holy Spirit and are able to lead you in the pathways of righteousness according to the way of Mshikha.

Regularly Assembling Together

It is written in the Scriptures that when you appear before Alaha for instruction in Torah you must assemble the men and the women and the children and the foreigner [[See Deuteronomy 31:9-13]]. These are each given their seats and places within the congregation. The men who are without wives do not sit with women and the women who are without husbands do not sit with men. And the women who are unclean due to the issue of blood must remain behind the veil with the other women who are without husbands.

The Daily Declarations

Brethren, let us be bold to proclaim these, our declarations* each day. When you come together you shall say: I declare myself to be a servant of Mar-Yah Alaha. I declare myself to be one who worships the one and only Mar-Yah Alaha who is Yeshua Mshikha. I declare myself to be one who guards our Most Holy Faith from any attack by its enemy. I declare my intentions to be steadfast in the belief of One Alaha who is made known through the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, three aspects in One Supreme Alahota. I declare my belief in the Son of Alaha, Yeshua Mshikha, the only Son of Alaha. I declare my belief in the prophecy of Mosha and the truth of Torah given through him. I declare my belief in the written Word of Alaha the Scriptures given to Mosha and to the Prophets and in the Gospel of Yeshua Mshikha bar Alaha. I declare my belief in the Fire of the Word of Alaha. I declare that I will resolutely never permit the Fire entrusted to me as a servant of Alaha to be extinguished as long as there is breath within my body. I declare my rejection of those who encroach upon all that is sacred in the Holy Land. I declare that the traditions and teachings given to us (through the Chosen Twelve)** shall always be within my heart and on my lips, for it was they who gave us, through Maran Yeshua: baptism, confession to Alaha and to man, the doctrine (of the Twelve)**, the sacred ministry, anointing by the sacred oil of Mar-Yah, the gathering together to break the Holy Bread of the Presence, raising up of the Cross before my eyes and before the peoples, assistance and prayer with anointing with oil of those who fall into illness, and observance of and devotion to the Word of Fire of Alaha. I declare my belief in the peaceful life, and I will not take up the sword against my brother. I declare my belief in the Revelation of Alaha through His servants the angels and spirits for the good of all mankind and in the progress to the Great Light of Alaha. I declare my belief in observing Torah given to Mosha and ratified by being sealed in the blood of the Lamb. I declare that I will resolutely honour and defend the Chair of Mosha (and the Throne of Ya’aqub and the Presence of the Archangel Michael through the continuation of the Twelve Holy Apostles who are always with us)**.

Concerning Death

(Note, the questions are not a part of the original text; the original text here is from Derekh d’Kehilla in a section on mourning of lost loved ones and was composed by +Mar Ya’aqub ha’Tzadik; it was copied into Sefer Avkadmonim by +Mar Yusef I in 216 CE)

What happens to those who die without knowing the Truth about Yeshua and His Way?

The souls of those who have not yet been purified by the Word before the passing of their body into death, shall go into Sheol for further purification and instruction in the Way.

How long does this take?

For some this will be a period of time consisting of twelve months. After receiving divine instruction from their Lord on matters in which they were either ignorant or refused in their former time on this earth, they shall enter into the joy of their Lord Yeshua and continually be within his light. When this occurs the soul is released from the bondage of the prison chambers of Sheol and the soul, being a flame originating from Alaha, will enter into Paradise for four months after which they will enter into Olam ha’Ba.

Can we help our relatives get into Paradise or into Olam ha’Ba?

Man is unable to assist the souls of the sinners who have entered into Sheol or Paradise. They may pray for Alaha to send his holy angels to instruct them, but there is nothing that may be affected in the other world by human hands in this world.

What happens to those who refuse Alaha even after being taught by the angels? There are those who will refuse the light, and by their own choosing do they enter deeper into the darkness of Sheol and eventually, if they refuse the light of Alaha, they will run deep into the bowels of Gehenna. All those who have refused to accept the light … shall be utterly destroyed, for it was by their own choosing that they remained in the dark prison chambers. In this they sin against Holy Spirit because it was the Spirit that was teaching them.

On the Order of Melkhitzadik

The order of Melkitzadik is that better order which has been ordained by Alaha to raise up a high priest, as in the case of Yeshua Mshikha bar Alaha, or a priest in general within the church of the living Alaha, and has been put into place by the hand of Alaha to remove an evil priest after the order the Aharon.

This Melkhitzadik, neither being a man or an angel by the common understanding of the term, is a creation of Alaha, the king of righteousness and of peace, who remains forever in the heavens, coming down by the power of the Holy Comforter, in the form of a man, residing with the spiritual father of the Church, and guides the Church in all righteousness with the assembly of the elders of the house of Maran’s kinsmen.

This same one was he whom Yeshua came after, and was in his likeness. Alaha is the same always, and His Torah never changes. For Alaha is the author of Torah and it is within His right to appoint a priest above that of Aharon, for it was Melkhitzadik who existed before Aharon, and he is the priest of Alaha Elyon [[Most High]].

————–

* This is one of the earliest creeds of the Church of Yerushalayim. It was composed during the first century before the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem in 135 C.E. There is a marginal note in the Annals that says it was taught by the scribes after the first century Apostles to be read before morning prayers and before Holy Qurbana by the head of the household or congregation.

** This phrase was added to the text before the Bar Kokhba rebellion. 

The 13 principles of faith

Daf Notes

LEVI IN BAVEL

  • The Gemora relates that Levi visited Bavel on the eleventh of Tishrei. Levi notified the people residing there that it was actually the tenth of Tishrei since Beis Din made Elul thirty days instead of the usual twenty-nine. They asked Levi to testify that Beis Din had made Elul thirty days and then they would be willing to fast again on the correct day. Levi responded that since he didn’t actually hear Beis Din proclaim the thirty-first day to begin the new month, he is unable to testify in this regard. The messengers were not permitted to go out in the months of Nissan and Tishrei until they heard Beis Din announce that the day has been sanctified as Rosh Chodesh.  (21a)

 

MESSENGERS

  • Rabbi Yochanan announced that anyplace where the messengers of Nissan can reach but the messengers of Tishrei cannot reach (due to Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) should observe two days of Pesach as a decree because of a possible blunder that might occur in Tishrei. (21a) 

    TWO DAYS OF YOM KIPPUR

  • Rava was accustomed to observe two days of Yom Kippur (and fast for two consecutive days) since he was concerned that Beis Din might make Elul thirty days even though this was highly unlikely to happen. There was one time that it happened that his second day was actually Yom Kippur. (21a) 

    SOLAR SEASON

  • Rav Huna bar Avin sent a message to Rava that when the solar season of Teves is extending until the sixteenth of Nissan, he should add a month to that year. He cites a Scriptural verse proving that the spring season should begin during the first fourteen days of Nissan, a time when the moon is becoming more visible. If the season would stretch to the fifteenth of Nissan, there is no necessity to add a month to the year; an extra day can be added onto Adar and that will be sufficient. (21a) 

    DESECRATING SHABBOS

  • The Mishna states that the witnesses who are coming to testify regarding the new moon of Nissan and Tishrei may desecrate Shabbos in order to arrive by Beis Din in a timely fashion The permission was limited to these months since these were the months that messengers were sent out to Surya and we needed to determine the dates for the Biblical festivals. During the time that the Beis Hamikdosh was in existence, they would be permitted to desecrate Shabbos for every month since there were sacrifices that needed to be offered on Rosh Chodesh. (21b) 

    MESSENGERS DEPARTING

  • The Gemora asks a contradiction by citing a Mishna learned previously that messengers were sent out on six months of the year and our Mishna states that they were sent out on Nissan and Tishrei. The Gemora answers that on Nissan and Tishrei there was a special halacha that the messengers could not depart Beis Din and inform the public regarding Rosh Chodesh until they actually heard Beis Din proclaiming the that the new month has been sanctified. Regarding the other months, they were allowed to go as soon as they knew which day would be Rosh Chodesh. (21b) 

    WHO CAN DESECRATE?

  • The Gemora cites a Scriptural verse proving that the witnesses are permitted to desecrate Shabbos in order to testify regarding the sighting of the new moon but the messengers are not allowed to desecrate Shabbos. (21b) 

    DISPUTE REGARDING THE VISIBILITY OF THE MOON

  • The Mishna cites a dispute regarding the circumstances that the witnesses would be permitted to desecrate the Shabbos. Rabbi Yosi maintains that the witnesses are only permitted to desecrate the Shabbos if the moon was not clearly visible to all since then the Beis Din will need these witnesses. The Chachamim hold that even if the moon is clearly visible, they are still permitted to desecrate the Shabbos and travel to Beis Din. The Mishna cites an incident where there were more than forty pairs of witnesses traveling to Beis Din and Rabbi Akiva held them in Lod since he figured that there were probably many more witnesses that saw the moon. Rabban Gamliel disagreed with Rabbi Akiva and stated that if these witnesses will not be allowed to travel to Beis Din this time, they will not even bother to come testify in the future. (21b) 

    INSIGHTS TO THE DAF

     

    YOM KIPPUR IN DOUBT

  • The Gemora relates that Levi visited Bavel on the eleventh of Tishrei. Levi notified the people residing there that it was actually the tenth of Tishrei since Beis Din made Elul thirty days instead of the usual twenty-nine. They asked Levi to testify that Beis Din had made Elul thirty days and then they would be willing to fast again on the correct day. Levi responded that since he didn’t actually hear Beis Din proclaim the thirty-first day to begin the new month, he is unable to testify in this regard. The messengers were not permitted to go out in the months of Nissan and Tishrei until they heard Beis Din announce that the day has been sanctified as Rosh Chodesh.

 

Tosfos asks that while it is true that Levi did not actually hear Beis Din proclaim the sanctity of the new month, how was he able to allow the Babylonians to ignore the fact that Yom Kippur is actually a day later. Tosafos answers based on the Scriptural verse “These are Hashem’s appointed [holy days] that you shall designate them as holy occasions,” and it is learned from there that Beis Din’s declaration of the new month is valid even if they choose the incorrect day through a mistake or even deliberately. Tosfos indicates that this is not only limited to the Beis din in Yerushalayim but even to a Beis Din in Bavel. If they rule that Rosh Chodesh is a certain day, it is indeed binding.
Turei Even asks many questions on Tosfos. His primary question is that it is illogical to assume that each Beis Din throughout the world can independently establish when Rosh Chodesh should be. This is only reserved to the Beis din in Yerushalayim.

The Turei Even learns different than Tosfos and states that Levi could not be believed since he is only one witness and one witness is not believed against a majority. Most of the time, Elul has only twenty-nine days and Levi couldn’t testify that the Beis Din made it thirty days. If Levi would have actually heard Beis Din proclaim that the thirty-first day is Rosh Chodesh, they would have acted stringently (above the letter of the law) and they would have fasted again on the tenth of Tishrei.

Rav Elyashiv points out that the Turei Even’s explanation is not consistent with the Rambam’s viewpoint where he states in Hilchos Kiddush Hachodesh (3:14) that one witness is believed even in relevance to a Biblical matter, providing that it is something that will eventually be made public.
The Turei Even cites a Shiltos who relates the incident a little different than in our Gemora. The Shiltos states that Reb Ivo and Reb Chiya went to Bavel and remarked that Beis Din had made Elul thirty days. According to this, they would be believed since they are two witnesses.

Chazon Ish learns that any place that is too far away from Yerushalayim and will not hear that Beis Din announced the sanctity of Rosh Chodesh, they establish the new months according to the calculation and not through witnesses. According to the Chazon Ish, I am not sure why it would make a difference if Levi heard the Beis Din establishing Rosh Chodesh.

 

Looking at the Chazon Ish again, he does answer this and states that they can only go by calculation if they didn’t hear what Beis Din in Eretz Yisroel did, but if they heard, then they must go according to them and next month they can revert back to the calculations.

 

Parashas Naso

37 – Naso – idra raba

rAbi Aba speaks about the time of day and how judgment and joy and praise are aroused at different times of the day and night. He says that
during sleep the soul rises above and is examined about its daily activities that are then recorded in the book.
1. “And Hashem spoke to Moses, saying, ‘Take also the sum of the
sons of Gershon'” (Bemidbar 4:21-22). Rabbi Aba opened the
discussion saying, “Blessed is the man to whom Hashem imputes
no iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no guile” (Tehilim 32:2). The
beginning and the end of this verse do not agree, BECAUSE THE
BEGINNING SAYS, “IMPUTES NO INIQUITY,” SEEMINGLY THAT HE
HAS SIN BUT IT IS NOT ASCRIBED TO HIM. BUT AT THE END IT
SAYS, “AND IN WHOSE SPIRIT THERE IS NO GUILE.” We should
look into it and it has already been established.
2. Come and see, During the afternoon prayers, judgment dwells in
the world and Isaac, WHO IS SUPERNAL GVURAH AND THE LEFT
COLUMN OF ZEIR ANPIN, composes the afternoon prayer. FOR
THEN THE MATING WAS COMPLETED IN THE SECRET OF: “HIS
LEFT HAND IS UNDER MY HEAD” (SHIR HASHIRIM 2:6).
THEREFORE, supernal Gvurah rules the world until the onset of
night, because Gvurah receives the night, MEANING THAT NIGHT IS
MALCHUT DRAWN FROM GVURAH, WHICH IS THE AFTERNOON
PRAYER. When the time of the afternoon prayer begins, the left
separates to receive MALCHUT and the night is aroused, WHICH IS
MALCHUT.
3. After THE NIGHT is aroused, all the guards of the external gates
are aroused in the world and spread out, and all the inhabitants of
the world taste death.
4. We have learned that at exactly midnight, the left is aroused as
before, AS DURING THE AFTERNOON PRAYER. The holy lily, WHICH
IS MALCHUT, exudes fragrances, WHICH IS THE SECRET OF THE
ILLUMINATION OF CHOCHMAH OF THE LEFT, and raises a voice in
praise. Then her head rises and dwells above in the left, IN THE
SECRET OF: “HIS LEFT HAND IS UNDER MY HEAD,” and the left
receives her.
5. This is then proclaimed in the world: The time has come to rise
from sleep and praise the King. Praises then awaken and everything
is fragrant. Praised is the lot of the one who awakens to effect this
bond. When morning approaches and the right, WHICH IS CHESED,
awakens and hugs her, there is universal union BETWEEN
CHOCHMAH AND THE CHASSADIM. THIS IS NOT THE CASE AT
NIGHT WHEN NO CHASSADIM EXIST.
6. Come and see, During the time when people sleep and taste of
death, the soul rises up and gets to stand in its place, where it is
examined about its daily activities which get recorded in the book.
What is the reason for this? Because the soul rises up and testifies
about all the person’s

Cooking on Yom Tov

The Laws of Cooking on Yom Tov

In the previous Halacha we have explained that although Shabbat and Yom Tov are equal in their prohibition to perform work on them and it is therefore a Torah prohibition to drive a car on Yom Tov, nevertheless, certain works associated with food preparation, such as cooking and frying, are permitted.

Let us now discuss an important detail regarding the laws of cooking on Yom Tov: There are certain foods which “lose their taste,” meaning that they are as not as tasty as time goes by from the time they were cooked. On the other hand, there are other foods which do not taste any different a day or two after they were cooked.

For instance, meat cooked on the grill will begin to lose its flavor as time passes since it has been cooked and it is preferable to eat it immediately after it has been cooked. Similarly, fried vegetable, such as French fries, are tastier when eaten immediately after they are prepared and the more time goes by, they begin to lose their taste. Such foods may be cooked on Yom Tov according to all opinions since if they are prepared before Yom Tov, they would not be as flavorful.

On the other hand, regarding foods which do not lose their flavor, such as jams, fruit compotes, and the like which do not taste any different several days after they have been cooked, there is a dispute among the Rishonim if they may be prepared on Yom Tov. Some say that since these foods may be prepared before Yom Tov, our Sages forbade preparing them on Yom Tov so that one does not stand in the kitchen and cook all Yom Tov long and abstain from enjoying Yom Tov. Others rule that our Sages never forbade this. The reasons behind this matter are quoted by Maran Ha’Bet Yosef and the other Poskim in the laws of Yom Tov (Chapter 495).

Halachically speaking, Maran Rabbeinu Ovadia Yosef zt”l rules (in his Chazon Ovadia-Yom Tov, page 8) that even a food which would not taste any different had it been prepared before Yom Tov, such as jams and compotes, may be prepared on Yom Tov,, it is nevertheless preferable, wherever possible, to prepare such foods before Yom Tov. One should prepare only foods that taste better fresh, such as fried vegetables, on Yom Tov itself.

Ashkenazim rule stringently on this matter as the Rama forbids preparing “foods which do not lose their taste” on Yom Tov. Nevertheless, the Mishnah Berura writes that if one did not have a chance to prepare such foods before Yom Tov due to a lack of time and the like, one may prepare them on Yom Tov. It is likewise permissible to prepare such foods on Yom Tov while cooking them in a somewhat different manner (such as by placing the pot on the flame in a different manner than usual).

Summary: Any food which tastes better when eaten immediately after its preparation, such as fried vegetables and grilled meat, may be prepared on Yom Tov. A food which does not taste any different if it is prepared before the holiday should preferably be prepared before Yom Tov, as we have written.

 

Introduction to the Laws of Yom Tov

 

The holiday of Shavuot will be celebrated, G-d willing, in approximately a week and a half on Wednesday, the 6th of Sivan (and outside of Israel on Thursday, the 7th of Sivan as well). Let us, therefore, begin to discuss some of the pertinent laws of the holiday.

The Torah states (Shemot 12) regarding the various holidays, i.e. the first day of Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret, the first and last days of Pesach, and the holiday of Shavuot: “No work shall be performed on them; however, any (work necessary for) food preparation eaten by all, this alone may be performed by you.” This means that any work which is forbidden on Shabbat is also forbidden on Yom Tov, besides for work needed to prepare food which is permissible on Yom Tov.

Some works pertaining to the Yom Tov food preparation which the Torah allows on the holiday itself include cooking, frying, baking, and the like, as we shall soon discuss.

The Sefer Ha’Chinuch explains that the reason the Torah forbade performing work on holidays is in order for the Jewish nation to remember the great miracles that Hashem performed for them and their ancestors and to pass this message on to their children. If work was permissible on these days, the honor of the festival and joy of the holiday would be forgotten because everyone would be busy at work; thus, due to the prohibition of working on the holidays, the Jewish people will be free to gather in synagogues and Batei Midrash to hear words of Torah and wisdom from luminaries of the generation who expound Halacha and stories of the Torah. This is based on the teaching of our Sages, “Moshe instituted that the Jewish nation expound the laws of Pesach on Pesach, the laws of Shavuot on Shavuot, and the laws of Sukkot on Sukkot, as the verse states, ‘And Moshe spoke out the festivals of Hashem to the Children of Israel.’” Similarly, our Sages taught, “Shabbat and holidays were only given to the Jewish nation so that they may delve in Torah study.” We were therefore commanded to have a complete cessation of work, excluding work needed for food preparation (for instance, preparing a dish for a holiday meal, according to the conditions and procedures we shall lay out in following Halachot). Similarly, our Sages have taught, “There is no distinction between Shabbat and Yom Tov besides for [the prohibition of] food preparation.” Nevertheless, one should divide the hours of the holiday with half being spent in the synagogue and Bet Midrash and half being spent eating, drinking, and enjoying the holiday.

Although the Torah permits performing work connected with food preparation (for a Jew), there are, nevertheless, some forms of work that our Sages have forbidden although they may be associated with food preparation.

Our Sages prohibited one from harvesting his field or vineyard on Yom Tov, even if this is for the purpose of food preparation (for instance, if one would like to pick an apple from a tree in order to eat it on Yom Tov), for fields and vineyards are usually harvested all at once, thus causing one to be busy at work all day long; this will, in turn, prevent one from enjoying the holiday. The same prohibition applies to collecting scattered stalks, threshing grains, squeezing fruits, selecting (separating different species from one another), grinding, and sifting.

Some say that performing these works on Yom Tov is actually a Torah prohibition. Our Sages in the Talmud Yerushalmi actually base the prohibition to perform these works on certain verses, as the Torah states, “However, any (work necessary for) food preparation eaten by all, this alone may be performed by you,” immediately followed by the verse, “And you shall guard the Matzot.” This means to teach us that works associated with food preparation are permissible only from “guarding” and on, meaning from the kneading of the dough and on (for when flour comes in contact with water its tendency is to leaven unless certain “guarding” procedures, which are used for Matzah baking, are implemented). Thus, works preceding kneading are prohibited on Yom Tov, whereas works performed after kneading are permitted on Yom Tov.

Thus, although kneading dough is prohibited on Shabbat, it is indeed permissible on Yom Tov. The same applies to cooking, frying, and the like, as we shall soon explain.